The Pitman Shorthand Language (PSL) is a recording medium practised in all organizations, where English is the medium of transaction. It has the practical advantage of high speed of recording, more than 180 words per minute, because of which it is appreciably received. This recording medium continues to exist in spite of considerable developments in speech processing systems, which are not yet universally established. In order to exploit the vast transcribing potential of PSL a new area of research into automation of PSL processing is conceived. This paper describes the substitution of equivalent English words for the phonetic compositions of transcribed words, in the process of automatic generation of English text from a PSL document. Transcription is achieved by making use of two new types of dictionaries specifically developed and implemented for this purpose, one of them being a phonetic dictionary wherein the words are sequenced in phonetic order and the other being an extended conventional dictionary wherein the words are appended with additional details such as use domain, forms of verbs, etc. The proposed approach is tested with limited words in both dictionaries and is found to perform satisfactorily. However, the scope exists for addition of new words into these dictionaries.
"At that time, there was no suitable pen-based device on which to exploit the approach. In the last ten years, a research group at Mysore University (Nagabhushan et al. (1999, 2000, 2002)) has been working on automation text production from offline Pitman notes. From their point of view, Pitman shorthand has advantages in being integrated into the present speech processing systems as it is the only universally accepted medium known for enabling real-time speech to text production. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Handwritten shorthand systems were devised to enable writers to record information on paper at fast speeds, ideally at the speed of speech. While they have been in existence for many years it is only since the 17th Century that widespread usage appeared. Several shorthand systems flourished in the first half of the 20th century until the introduction and widespread use of electronic recording and dictation machines in the 1970's. Since then, shorthand usage has been in rapid decline, but has not yet become a lost skill. Pitman shorthand has been shown to possess unique advantages as a means of fast text entry which is particularly applicable to hand-held devices in mobile environments. This paper presents progress and critical research issues for a Pitman/Renqun Shorthand Online Recognition System. Recognition and transcription experiments are reported which indicate that a correct recognition and transcription rate of around 90% is currently possible.
International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence 11/2011; 23(05). DOI:10.1142/S0218001409007405 · 0.67 Impact Factor
"Detailed research in the automatic transcription of handwritten Pitman shorthand has been conducted by Leedham & Downton  and the transcription process has been categorised into two major sections: -conversion of pattern primitives into phonetic representation using production rules and transliteration of phonetic strings into correct orthography English. The most recent work by Nagabuhushan & Anami  proposed a dictionary supported transcription algorithm. Their work overviewed current transcription performance and concluded that further work is required in the homophones solution area. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The paper proposes the computer transcription of handwritten Pitman shorthand as a mean of rapid text entry to handheld devices. Handwritten outlines are bound to be variation from writers to writers and it causes pattern recognition to be prone to errors, however these imperfections can be restored by the use of heuristic approach in the interpretation stage. The transcription accuracy can be improved by the combination of three factors: firstly, incorporating contextual knowledge as used by human readers; secondly, applying knowledge of the most frequent words of Pitman shorthand; and finally, adding knowledge of collocation. Statistical analysis of a Shorthand lexicon is presented and distribution of transcription accuracy based on accuracy of segmentation is discussed in the paper. Experiments using a phonetic Lexicon with 5000 entries show that the approach is efficient and produces a satisfactory transcription accuracy of 94%.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The computer transcription of handwritten Pitmans shorthand has enormous potential as a means of rapid text entry to todays handheld devices. Recognition errors caused in pattern segmentation and classification raises the incidence of ambiguous interpretation in existing systems and the paper proposes a well-established unigram technique and an efficient heuristic method to reduce ambiguity in a linguistic post processor. Heuristics applied in our transcription system are: - firstly, incorporating visual stimulus as used by human readers; secondly, applying knowledge of the most common words of Pitman shorthand; and finally, adding knowledge of collocation. An experiment using a phonetic Lexicon of 5000 entries shows the distribution of ambiguity in a shorthand lexicon due to the similarity of outlines and estimates the transcription accuracy of 94%.
Document Analysis Systems VI, 6th International Workshop, DAS 2004, Florence, Italy, September 8-10, 2004, Proceedings; 01/2004
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