Relationship between clinical and pathologic features of ductal carcinoma in situ and patient age: an analysis of 657 patients.

Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue Boston, MA 02215, USA.
The American journal of surgical pathology (Impact Factor: 4.59). 12/2009; 33(12):1802-8. DOI: 10.1097/PAS.0b013e3181b7cb7a
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Prior studies have shown that young patient age at diagnosis is associated with an increased risk of local recurrence among women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) treated with breast-conserving therapy. Whether this can be explained by differences in clinical or pathologic features of DCIS according to age is an unresolved issue. We compared clinical and pathologic features of DCIS among 657 women in 4 age groups: <45 years (n=111), 45 to 54 years (n=191), 55 to 64 years (n=160), and 65+ years (n=195). DCIS presented as a mammographic abnormality less often in younger than in older women (68%, 82%, 81%, and 86% for women <45, 45 to 54, 55 to 64, and 65+ y, respectively; P=0.003). Among the pathologic features analyzed, DCIS extent as determined by the number of low power fields was greater in younger than in older women (mean number of low power fields were 18.6, 14.2, 10.8, and 11.3 in women <45, 45 to 54, 55 to 64 and 65+ y; P<0.001). In addition, cancerization of lobules was present more often in younger than in older women (77%, 73%, 66%, and 50% for women <45, 45 to 54, 55 to 64 and 65+ y, respectively; P<0.0001). Of note, we found no statistically significant relationship between age and DCIS architectural pattern, nuclear grade, comedo necrosis or expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. We conclude that DCIS in younger women is more often symptomatic, is more extensive, and more often shows cancerization of lobules than DCIS in older women. Whether these features contribute to the higher local recurrence risk in young women with DCIS treated with the breast-conserving therapy requires further study.

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    ABSTRACT: Young women with ductal carcinoma in situ treated by breast-conserving therapy have a higher recurrence rate than do older women, and a younger age at diagnosis is associated with worse overall survival after recurrence. This study explores the clinical, pathologic, and immunohistochemical characteristics of ductal carcinoma in situ lesions diagnosed in women 40 years and younger with a focus on molecular subtypes to elucidate features that may contribute to the purported worse outcome for this patient population. Forty-one patients diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ at age 40 years and younger were identified over a 10-year period; 31 cases were used to construct tissue microarrays. The microarrays were labeled with antibodies to estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2, Ki-67, CK5/6, epidermal growth factor receptor, and p53 and subsequently classified as luminal A, luminal B, HER2, basal-like, or unclassifiable triple negative. All patients had high-grade (73.2%) or intermediate-grade (26.8%) ductal carcinoma in situ. The molecular subtype breakdown was 61.3% luminal A, 22.6% luminal B, 13% HER2, and 3.1% unclassifiable triple negative. The mean Ki-67 by subtype was 4.2%, 14%, 9.5%, and 50%, respectively. Mastectomy was performed in 33 patients (80%). Eight patients (20%) underwent excisional biopsy without subsequent mastectomy. In addition to a predominance of high-grade lesions, young patients had a high proportion of luminal B subtype, which may contribute to an increased rate of local recurrence in this population. A larger series is necessary to confirm the impact that the molecular subtypes of ductal carcinoma in situ in younger patients might have on outcome.
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