Activated Rac1 GTPase translocates protein phosphatase 5 to the cell membrane and stimulates phosphatase activity in vitro.
ABSTRACT Physiological studies of ion channel regulation have implicated the Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) as an effector of Rac1 GTPase signaling, but direct biochemical evidence for PP5 regulation by Rac1 is lacking. In this study we used immunoprecipitation, in vitro binding, cellular fractionation, and immunofluorescence techniques to show that the tetratricopeptide repeat domain of PP5 interacts specifically and directly with active Rac1. Consequently, activation of Rac1 promoted PP5 translocation to the plasma membrane in intact cells and stimulated PP5 phosphatase activity in vitro. In contrast, neither constitutively active RhoA-V14 nor dominant negative Rac1N17, which preferentially binds GDP and retains an inactive conformation, bound PP5 or stimulated its activity. In addition, Rac1N17 and Rac1(PBRM), a mutant lacking the C-terminal polybasic region required for Rac1 association with the membrane, both failed to cause membrane translocation of PP5. Mutation of predicted contact residues in the PP5 tetratricopeptide repeat domain or within Rac1 also disrupted co-immunoprecipitation of Rac1-PP5 complexes and membrane translocation of PP5. Specific binding of PP5 to activated Rac1 provides a direct mechanism by which PP5 can be stimulated and recruited to participate in Rac1-mediated signaling pathways.
SourceAvailable from: Mami Noda[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction and communication accompanied with repetitive behavioral patterns and unusual stereotyped interests. Autism is considered a highly heterogeneous disorder with diverse putative causes and associated factors giving rise to variable ranges of symptomatology. Incidence seems to be increasing with time, while the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain virtually uncharacterized (or unknown). By systematic review of the literature and a systems biology approach, our aims were to examine the multifactorial nature of autism with its broad range of severity, to ascertain the predominant biological processes, cellular components, and molecular functions integral to the disorder, and finally, to elucidate the most central contributions (genetic and/or environmental) in silico. With this goal, we developed an integrative network model for gene-environment interactions (GENVI model) where calcium (Ca2+) was shown to be its most relevant node. Moreover, considering the present data from our systems biology approach together with the results from the differential gene expression analysis of cerebellar samples from autistic patients, we believe that RAC1, in particular, and the RHO family of GTPases, in general, could play a critical role in the neuropathological events associated with autism.Neuromolecular medicine 03/2013; 15(2):364-383. DOI:10.1007/s12017-013-8224-3 · 3.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 5 (PP5, PPP5C) is known to interact with the chaperonin heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), and is involved in the regulation of multiple cellular signaling cascades that control diverse cellular processes such as cell growth, differentiation, proliferation, motility, and apoptosis. Here, we identify PP5 in stable complexes with extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs). Studies using mutant proteins reveal that the formation of PP5-ERK1 and PP5-ERK2 complexes partially depends on HSP90 binding to PP5, but does not require PP5 or ERK1/2 activity. However, PP5 and ERK activity regulates the phosphorylation state of Raf1 kinase, an upstream activator of ERK signaling. While expression of constitutively active Rac1 promotes the assembly of PP5-ERK1/2 complexes, acute activation of ERK1/2 fails to influence the phosphatase-kinase interaction. Introduction of oncogenic HRas (HRasV12) has no effect on PP5-ERK1 binding but selectively decreases the interaction of PP5 with ERK2, in a manner that is independent of PP5 and MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) activity, yet paradoxically requires ERK2 activity. Additional studies conducted with oncogenic variants of KRas4B reveal that KRasL61, but not KRasV12, also decreases the PP5-ERK2 interaction. The expression of wildtype HRas or KRas proteins fails to reduce PP5-ERK2 binding, indicating that the effect is specific to HRasV12 and KRasL61 gain-of-function mutations. These findings reveal a novel, differential responsiveness of PP5-ERK1 and PP5-ERK2 interactions to select oncogenic Ras variants, and also support a role for PP5-ERK complexes in regulating the feedback phosphorylation of PP5-associated Raf1.Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2013; 289(7). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M113.518514 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motif is one of many repeat motifs that form structural domains in proteins that can act as interaction scaffolds in the formation of multi-protein complexes involved in numerous cellular processes such as transcription, the cell cycle, protein translocation, protein degradation and host defence against invading pathogens. The crystal structures of many TPR domain-containing proteins have been determined, showing TPR motifs as two anti-parallel α-helices packed in tandem arrays to form a structure with an amphipathic groove which can bind a target peptide. This is however not the only mode of target recognition by TPR domains, with short amino acid insertions and alternative TPR motif conformations also shown to contribute to protein interactions, highlighting diversity in TPR domains and the versatility of this structure in mediating biological events.Cell Stress and Chaperones 12/2010; 16(4):353-67. DOI:10.1007/s12192-010-0248-0 · 2.54 Impact Factor
David L. Armstrong