Atomic Layer Deposition: An Overview

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA.
Chemical Reviews (Impact Factor: 45.66). 11/2009; 110(1):111-31. DOI: 10.1021/cr900056b
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Open-space nanomaterials are a widespread class of technologically important materials that are generally incompatible with analysis by atom probe tomography (APT) due to issues with specimen preparation, field evaporation and data reconstruction. The feasibility of encapsulating such non-compact matter in a matrix to enable APT measurements is investigated using nanoparticles as an example. Simulations of field evaporation of a void, and the resulting artifacts in ion trajectory, underpin the requirement that no voids remain after encapsulation. The approach is demonstrated by encapsulating Pt nanoparticles in an ZnO:Al matrix created by atomic layer deposition, a growth technique which offers very high surface coverage and conformality. APT measurements of the Pt nanoparticles are correlated with transmission electron microscopy images and numerical simulations in order to evaluate the accuracy of the APT reconstruction. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Ultramicroscopy 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ultramic.2015.02.014 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been shown as a powerful technique to build three-dimensional (3D) all-solid-state microbattery, because of its unique advantages in fabricating uniform and pinhole-free thin films in 3D structures. The development of solid-state electrolyte by ALD is a crucial step to achieve the fabrication of 3D all-solid-state microbattery by ALD. In this work, lithium phosphate solid-state electrolytes were grown by ALD at four different temperatures (250, 275, 300, and 325 °C) using two precursors (lithium tert-butoxide and trimethylphosphate). A linear dependence of film thickness on ALD cycle number was observed and uniform growth was achieved at all four temperatures. The growth rate was 0.57, 0.66, 0.69, and 0.72 Å/cycle at deposition temperatures of 250, 275, 300, and 325 °C, respectively. Furthermore, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the compositions and chemical structures of lithium phosphates deposited by ALD. Moreover, the lithium phosphate thin films deposited at 300 °C presented the highest ionic conductivity of 1.73 × 10(-8) S cm(-1) at 323 K with ∼0.51 eV activation energy based on the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The ionic conductivity was calculated to be 3.3 × 10(-8) S cm(-1) at 26 °C (299 K).
    Nanotechnology 11/2014; 25(50):504007. DOI:10.1088/0957-4484/25/50/504007 · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Applied Surface Science j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / a p s u s c a b s t r a c t X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to investigate the properties of AlN films deposited using a low temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition process. Aluminum, nitrogen and oxygen peaks were observed in the survey spectra. A thin layer of sputtered aluminum was used as a diffusion barrier, in order to distinguish between oxygen introduced during deposition and post-deposition. The results show no post-deposition oxidation. Furthermore, the samples were scanned at various depths, and the peaks were then deconvolved into the constituent subpeaks. The results show no Al–O–N bonding in the film. This result supports the models that propose that oxygen at low concentrations in AlN bonds exclusively to aluminum and forms planes of aluminum oxide octahedrons dispersed in the lattice.
    Applied Surface Science 10/2014; 315:104-109. DOI:10.1016/j.apsusc.2014.07.105 · 2.54 Impact Factor

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