ABSTRACT Collagen XVII has been identified as having a role in inherited junctional epidermolysis bullosa non-Herlitz (JEB-other, MIM #226650). The role of collagen XVII in both autoimmune and genetic blistering disorders demonstrates its relevance to dermal-epidermal adhesion. Collagen XVII is a major structural component of the hemidesmosome (HD), a highly specialized multiprotein complex that mediates the anchorage of basal epithelial cells to the underlying basement membrane in stratified, pseudostratified, and transitional epithelia. This article examines the genetic and pathological features of collagen XVII.
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ABSTRACT: Heritable skin diseases represent a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations due to mutations in ∼500 different genes. A number of model systems have been developed to advance our understanding of the pathomechanisms of genodermatoses. Zebrafish (Danio rerio), a freshwater vertebrate, has a well-characterized genome, the expression of which can be easily manipulated. The larvae develop rapidly, with all major organs having largely developed by 5-6 days post-fertilization, including the skin which consists at that stage of the epidermis comprising two cell layers and separated from the dermal collagenous matrix by a basement membrane zone. Here, we describe the use of morpholino-based antisense oligonucleotides to knockdown the expression of specific genes in zebrafish and to examine the consequent knockdown efficiency and skin phenotypes. Zebrafish can provide a useful model system to study heritable skin diseases.Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2013; 961:411-24. DOI:10.1007/978-1-62703-227-8_28 · 1.29 Impact Factor
Article: The Genetics of Skin Fragility.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Genetic skin fragility manifests with diminished resistance of the skin and mucous membranes to external mechanical forces and with skin blistering, erosions, and painful wounds as clinical features. Skin fragility disorders, collectively called epidermolysis bullosa, are caused by mutations in 18 distinct genes that encode proteins involved in epidermal integrity and dermal-epidermal adhesion. The genetic spectrum, along with environmental and genetic modifiers, creates a large number of clinical phenotypes, spanning from minor localized lesions to severe generalized blistering, secondary skin cancer, or early demise resulting from extensive loss of the epidermis. Laboratory investigations of skin fragility have greatly augmented our understanding of genotype-phenotype correlations in epidermolysis bullosa and have also advanced skin biology in general. Current translational research concentrates on the development of biologically valid treatments with therapeutic genes, cells, proteins, or small-molecule compounds in preclinical settings or human pilot trials. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics Volume 15 is September 01, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics 09/2013; DOI:10.1146/annurev-genom-090413-025540 · 9.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The cutaneous basement membrane zone (BMZ) is a highly specialized functional complex that provides the skin with structural adhesion and resistance to shearing forces. Its regulatory functions include control of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions under physiological and pathological conditions. Mutations in genes encoding components of the BMZ are associated with inherited skin disorders of the epidermolysis bullosa (EB) group, characterized by skin fragility, mechanically induced blisters and erosions of the skin and mucous membranes. Although most disease-associated genes are known, the genetic basis of new EB subtypes linked to mutations in genes for focal adhesion proteins was uncovered only recently. The molecular mechanisms leading to blistering, abnormal wound healing, predisposition to skin cancer, and other complications in EB have been elucidated using animal models and disease proteomics. The rapid progress in understanding the molecular basis of EB has enabled the development of strategies for biologically valid causal therapies.Matrix biology: journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology 08/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.matbio.2013.07.007 · 3.65 Impact Factor