Article

Microglia and Central Nervous System Immunity

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California at San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue, One Shrader Street, Suite 650, San Francisco, CA 94117, USA.
Neurosurgery clinics of North America (Impact Factor: 1.54). 01/2010; 21(1):43-51. DOI: 10.1016/j.nec.2009.08.009
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The central nervous system (CNS) has evolved as an immune-privileged site to protect its vital functions from damaging immune-mediated inflammation. There must be a CNS-adapted system of surveillance that continuously evaluates local changes in the nervous system and communicates to the peripheral immune system during an injury or a disease. Recent advances leading to a better understanding of the CNS disease processes has placed microglia, the CNS-based resident macrophages, at center stage in this system of active surveillance. Evidence points to microglia cells contributing to the immunosuppressive environment of gliomas and actually promoting tumor growth. Microglia accumulation exists in almost every CNS disease process, including CNS tumors. This article discusses the role of microglia in CNS immunity and highlights key advances made in glioma immunology.

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    • "Microglia and astrocytes account for the majority of the brain cell population , and there is no indication of any gender difference with respect to the spatial distribution of these cell types in the male and female brain (Stark et al., 2007). While microglia represent the primary immune cell of the central nervous system, astrocytes are also considered to be immunocompetent, as they possess the ability to synthesize immune molecules in response to insult/ injury (Farina et al., 2007; Gimsa et al., 2013; Jensen et al., 2013; Kaur et al., 2010; Pivneva, 2008; Wirenfeldt et al., 2011). In the context of immunity, mast cells and dendritic cells are also of particular importance. "
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