An examination of the relationship between movement problems and four common developmental disorders.
ABSTRACT It has been well recognized since the days of "minimal brain dysfunction" (Clements, 1966) that various developmental disorders have a shared aetiology. Poor motor coordination has been implicated as one of the factors in these relationships. This study examines the different patterns in symptomatology of five developmental disorders, namely developmental coordination disorder (DCD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), reading disorder (RD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD) in order to build on the genetic work from Martin, Levy, Piek, and Hay (2006) and Martin, Piek, and Hay (2006) examining the overlap of these disorders. Latent class analysis was used on questionnaire data from 1304 families from the Australian twin ADHD project (ATAP) to examine the patterns of comorbidity of the five disorders. We confirmed and added detail to the shared symptoms between DCD, ADHD, RD, and ODD, but found no links between CD symptoms and any other disorders. Despite the close link previously identified with ODD and CD, this finding suggests a different aetiology for CD.
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ABSTRACT: The current research aimed at examining the executive function (EF) of young adults with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) in comparison to young adults without DCD. The study used a randomized cohort (N = 429) of young adults with DCD (n = 135), borderline DCD (n = 149) and control (n = 145), from a previous study. This initial cohort was asked to participate in the current study three to four years later. Twenty-five individuals with DCD (mean age = 24 years, 1 month [SD = 0.88]; 18 males), 30 with borderline DCD (mean age = 24 years, 2 month [SD = 0.98]; 18 males) and 41 without DCD (mean age = 25 years, 2 months [SD = 1.91]; 20 males) participated in this study. Participants completed the BRIEF-A questionnaire, assessing EF abilities and the WURS questionnaire, assessing attention abilities. The DCD and borderline DCD groups had significantly lower EF profiles in comparison with the control group but no significant differences were found between the DCD and borderline DCD groups. While a high percentage of attention problems were found in both DCD groups, the executive functioning profiles remained consistent even when using the attention component as a covariate. The study results suggest that young adults with DCD have EF problems which remain consistent with or without attention difficulties.Research in Developmental Disabilities 11/2014; 35(11):2644–2650. · 3.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The health benefits of exercise participation and physical activity for mental health and psychosocial well-being (PSWB) have been shown in several studies. However, one important background factor, that is, motor skills (MSs), has largely been ignored. In addition, most of the existing research focuses on poor MSs, that is, poor MSs are often connected to poorer PSWB. The mechanism linking MSs and PSWB is unclear. However, a preliminary suggestion has been made that self-worth or self-perceptions might mediate the association between MSs and PSWB. We investigated whether the self-concepts (SCs) of school-related physical education (SCPE), reading (SCR), and mathematics (SCM) mediate the relationship between MSs and PSWB in adolescence. The study sample consisted of a second-grade female cohort (N = 327), ranging in age between 12 and 16 (years) in a municipality in Central Finland. PSWB was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the school-related SCs by the SC of ability scale adapted for use in Finland. MSs was assessed by a self-reported adolescent version of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire. Structural mediator modelling was used to test the associations between MSs and PSWB with SC as a mediator. First, MSs was strongly associated with school-related SCPE and SCM. However, a mediator role was observed only for SCPE, which weakly mediated peer problems. Second, MSs and PSWB, especially conduct problems, showed a very strong direct association. The study suggests that MSs is connected to PSWB in adolescent girls. Enhancement of MSs could be a preventive strategy for supporting PSWB in adolescent girls.British Journal of Educational Psychology 06/2014; 84(2):268-80. · 1.42 Impact Factor