A Phase 1 study to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant HIV type 1 subtype C-modified vaccinia Ankara virus vaccine candidate in Indian volunteers.
ABSTRACT A recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara virus vaccine candidate (TBC-M4) expressing HIV-1 subtype C env, gag, tat-rev, and nef-RT genes was tested in a randomized, double-blind, dose escalation Phase I trial in 32 HIV-uninfected healthy volunteers who received three intramuscular injections of TBC-M4 at 0, 1, and 6 months of 5 x 10(7) plaque-forming units (pfu) (low dosage, LD) (n = 12) or 2.5 x 10(8) pfu (high dosage, HD) (n = 12) or placebo (n = 8). Local and systemic reactogenicity was experienced by approximately 67% and 83% of vaccine recipients, respectively. The reactogenicity events were mostly mild in severity. Severe but transient systemic reactogenicity was seen in one volunteer of the HD group. No vaccine-related serious adverse events or events suggesting perimyocarditis were seen. A higher frequency of local reactogenicity events was observed in the HD group. Cumulative HIV-specific IFN-gamma ELISPOT responses were detected in frozen PBMCs from 9/11 (82%), 12/12 (100%), and 1/8 (13%) volunteers after the third injection of the LD, HD, and placebo groups, respectively. Most of the responses were to gag and env proteins (maximum of 430 SFU/10(6) PBMCs) persisting across multiple time points. HIV-specific ELISA antibody responses were detected in 10/11, 12/12, and 0/8 volunteers post-third vaccination, in the LD, HD, and placebo groups, respectively. No neutralizing activity against HIV-1 subtype C isolates was detected. TBC-M4 appears to be generally safe and well-tolerated. The immune response detected was dose dependent, modest in magnitude, and directed mostly to env and gag proteins, suggesting further evaluation of this vaccine in a prime-boost regimen.
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ABSTRACT: HIV-1 vaccine development has advanced slowly due to viral antigenic diversity, poor immunogenicity and recently, safety concerns associated with human adenovirus serotype-5 vectors. To tackle HIV-1 variation, we designed a unique T-cell immunogen HIVconsv from functionally conserved regions of the HIV-1 proteome, which were presented to the immune system using a heterologous prime-boost combination of plasmid DNA, a non-replicating simian (chimpanzee) adenovirus ChAdV-63 and a non-replicating poxvirus, modified vaccinia virus Ankara. A block-randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled phase I trial HIV-CORE 002 administered for the first time candidate HIV-1- vaccines or placebo to 32 healthy HIV-1/2-uninfected adults in Oxford, UK and elicited high frequencies of HIV-1-specific T cells capable of inhibiting HIV-1 replication in vitro. Here, detail safety and tolerability of these vaccines are reported.PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e101591. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0101591 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Disease prevention through vaccination is one of the most important achievements of medicine. Today, we have a substantial number of vaccines against a variety of pathogens. In this context, poxviruses and vaccinology are closely related, as the birth of modern vaccinology was marked by the use of poxviruses as immunogens and so was the eradication of smallpox, one of the world’s most feared diseases ever. Nowadays, poxviruses continue to notoriously contribute to vaccinology since their use as vaccine vectors has become popular and widespread. One of the most promising vectors is the modified vaccinia ankara. In this review we provide an overview of the contribution of poxvirus to vaccine immunology, particularly focusing on modified vaccinia ankara-based vaccines developed to date.Future Virology 02/2014; 9(2):173-187. DOI:10.2217/fvl.13.129 · 1.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Many candidate vaccine strategies against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are under study, but their clinical development is lengthy and iterative. To accelerate HIV vaccine development optimised trial designs are needed. We propose a randomised multi-arm phase I/II design for early stage development of several vaccine strategies, aiming at rapidly discarding those that are unsafe or non-immunogenic. We explored early stage designs to evaluate both the safety and the immunogenicity of four heterologous prime-boost HIV vaccine strategies in parallel. One of the vaccines used as a prime and boost in the different strategies (vaccine 1) has yet to be tested in humans, thus requiring a phase I safety evaluation. However, its toxicity risk is considered minimal based on data from similar vaccines. We newly adapted a randomised phase II trial by integrating an early safety decision rule, emulating that of a phase I study. We evaluated the operating characteristics of the proposed design in simulation studies with either a fixed-sample frequentist or a continuous Bayesian safety decision rule and projected timelines for the trial. We propose a randomised four-arm phase I/II design with two independent binary endpoints for safety and immunogenicity. Immunogenicity evaluation at trial end is based on a single-stage Fleming design per arm, comparing the observed proportion of responders in an immunogenicity screening assay to an unacceptably low proportion, without direct comparisons between arms. Randomisation limits heterogeneity in volunteer characteristics between arms. To avoid exposure of additional participants to an unsafe vaccine during the vaccine boost phase, an early safety decision rule is imposed on the arm starting with vaccine 1 injections. In simulations of the design with either decision rule, the risks of erroneous conclusions were controlled <15%. Flexibility in trial conduct is greater with the continuous Bayesian rule. A 12-month gain in timelines is expected by this optimised design. Other existing designs such as bivariate or seamless phase I/II designs did not offer a clear-cut alternative. By combining phase I and phase II evaluations in a multi-arm trial, the proposed optimised design allows for accelerating early stage clinical development of HIV vaccine strategies.Trials 02/2014; 15(1):68. DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-15-68 · 2.12 Impact Factor