Article

Kinetics of apatite formation on a calcium-silicate cement for root-end filling during ageing in physiological-like phosphate solutions.

Laboratory of Biomaterials and Oral Pathology, Department of Odontostomatological Science, Endodontic Clinical Section, University of Bologna, Italy.
Clinical Oral Investigations (Impact Factor: 2.2). 11/2009; 14(6):659-68. DOI: 10.1007/s00784-009-0356-3
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The bioactivity of calcium silicate mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) cements has been attributed to their ability to produce apatite in presence of phosphate-containing fluids. This study evaluated surface morphology and chemical transformations of an experimental accelerated calcium-silicate cement as a function of soaking time in different phosphate-containing solutions. Cement discs were immersed in Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS) or Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) for different times (1-180 days) and analysed by scanning electron microscopy connected with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. SEM-EDX revealed Ca and P peaks after 14 days in DPBS. A thin Ca- and P-rich crystalline coating layer was detected after 60 days. A thicker multilayered coating was observed after 180 days. Micro-Raman disclosed the 965-cm(-1) phosphate band at 7 days only on samples stored in DPBS and later the 590- and 435-cm(-1) phosphate bands. After 60-180 days, a layer approximately 200-900 μm thick formed displaying the bands of carbonated apatite (at 1,077, 965, 590, 435 cm(-1)) and calcite (at 1,088, 713, 280 cm(-1)). On HBSS-soaked, only calcite bands were observed until 90 days, and just after 180 days, a thin apatite-calcite layer appeared. Micro-Raman and SEM-EDX demonstrated the mineralization induction capacity of calcium-silicate cements (MTAs and Portland cements) with the formation of apatite after 7 days in DPBS. Longer time is necessary to observe bioactivity when cements are immersed in HBSS.

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