[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although drug-eluting stents (DES) have considerably reduced the incidence of in-stent restenosis, late and very late stent thrombosis (ST) after DES implantation have emerged as major safety concerns. We morphologically investigated the age of DES thrombi aspirated during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) from patients with either late or very late ST that resulted in acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
We obtained DES thrombi during PCI from 16 consecutive patients with ST (late and very late ST, n=4 and n=12, respectively), who presented with AMI within 24 h of the onset of anginal symptoms. Thrombi were morphologically classified as fresh, lytic, and organized. Fresh thrombus was identified in 5 (31%) of the 16 patients and lytic thrombus was found in 3 (19%). Organized thrombus was notably found in 8 (50%) patients, of whom 5 (31%) had only the organized type and 3 (19%) had both fresh and organized thrombi. The frequency of fresh thrombus tended to be higher in patients with stent failure such as stent malapposition and fracture, but the difference did not reach significance (p=0.06).
Although the study group is small, about two-thirds of DES thrombi in late and very late ST were days or weeks old. These findings suggest an important discrepancy between the time of onset of the intra-stent thrombotic process and the occurrence of acute clinical symptoms, and provide further information about another potential mechanism of DES thrombosis.
Journal of Cardiology 01/2012; 59(1):57-63. DOI:10.1016/j.jjcc.2011.08.006 · 2.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stent thrombosis is an uncommon but serious complication which carries with it significant mortality and morbidity. This review analyzes the entity of stent thrombosis from a historical and clinical perspective, and chronicles the evolution of this condition through the various generations of stent development, from bare metal to first-generation, second-generation, and third-generation drug-eluting stents. It also delineates the specific risk factors associated with stent thrombosis and comprehensively examines the literature related to each of these risks. Finally, it highlights the preventative strategies that can be garnered from the existing data, and concludes that a multifactorial approach is necessary to combat the occurrence of stent thrombosis, with higher risk groups, such as patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction, meriting further research.
Vascular Health and Risk Management 01/2015; 11:93-106. DOI:10.2147/VHRM.S43357
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Thrombus propagation on disrupted atherosclerotic plaque leads to acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Recent studies have shown that the histopathology of the coronary thrombus is associated with myocardial reperfusion, ST-segment recovery, distal embolization and long-term mortality in patients with AMI. Therefore, we investigated the histopathologic characteristics of material aspirated during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with AMI, and assessed whether the histologic findings are related to in-hospital mortality. Methods and Results: In this prospective single-center registry, coronary materials were obtained during PCI from 264 AMI patients within 24h of the onset of anginal symptoms. Organized thrombus, calcification and plaque components in the aspirated material were morphologically assessed. In-hospital deaths occurred in 17 (6%) patients. Organized thrombi were found in 91 (34%) of 264 patients, calcification was identified in 44 (17%) and plaque components in 117 (44%) patients. Rates of in-hospital all-cause mortality were significantly higher among patients with than without organized thrombus (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis also identified organized thrombus as an independent predictor of in-hospital death, as well as age, a history of myocardial infarction and the presence of shock (P<0.05). In contrast, calcification and plaque components were not significantly associated with in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: Our results suggest that organized thrombus in aspirated coronary material is an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality of patients with AMI.
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