This study compares the effects of an integrated yoga program with brief supportive therapy in breast cancer outpatients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy at a cancer centre.
Eighty-eight stage II and III breast cancer outpatients were randomly assigned to receive yoga (n = 44) or brief supportive therapy (n = 44) prior to their radiotherapy treatment. Intervention consisted of yoga sessions lasting 60 min daily while the control group was imparted supportive therapy once in 10 days. Assessments included European Organization for Research in the Treatment of Cancer-Quality of Life (EORTCQoL C30) functional scales and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Assessments were done at baseline and after 6 weeks of radiotherapy treatment.
An intention to treat GLM repeated measures ANOVA showed significant difference across groups over time for positive affect, negative affect and emotional function and social function. There was significant improvement in positive affect (ES = 0.59, p = 0.007, 95%CI 1.25 to 7.8), emotional function (ES = 0.71, p = 0.001, 95%CI 6.45 to 25.33) and cognitive function (ES = 0.48, p = 0.03, 95%CI 1.2 to 18.5), and decrease in negative affect (ES = 0.84, p<0.001, 95%CI -13.4 to -4.4) in the yoga group as compared to controls. There was a significant positive correlation between positive affect with role function, social function and global quality of life. There was a significant negative correlation between negative affect with physical function, role function, emotional function and social function.
The results suggest a possible role for yoga to improve quality of life and affect in breast cancer outpatients.
"Class attendance and yoga practice were also significant predictors of improved vigor. Although no previous MBSR studies found a positive relationship with vigor (Carlson et al. 2003, 2004; Speca et al. 2000), several yoga-focused programs for cancer patients showed improved positive mood (Vadiraja et al. 2009), energy (Mackenzie et al. 2013), and invigoration (Carson et al. 2007). Carson et al. (2007) specifically showed that yoga home exercise was associated with an increase in self-rated invigoration on the day of home practice and the next day. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated health benefits of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) among cancer patients. While sustained mindfulness practice is an integral part of MBIs, few studies have examined the role of home practice on intervention outcomes. Also, little is known about characteristics of those who attend more classes and practice more yoga and meditation. Hence, this study investigated predictors and outcomes of engagement in a Mindfulness-Based Cancer Recovery (MBCR) program. Questionnaire data and home practice logs of 38 breast cancer survivors were collected before and after MBCR. A range of demographic, personality, and symptom-related factors were measured. Correlations and regression analyses were conducted. Only greater baseline anxiety was correlated with more home meditation practice (p p p p p p p p p Directionality and clinical significance of these changes need to be further investigated.
"Findings from a pilot randomized-controlled trial (RCT) examining the effects of a 10-week restorative yoga program in breast cancer survivors on or off treatment suggest significant benefits favoring the yoga group on positive affect, mental health, depression and spirituality outcomes . Findings from a second pilot RCT examining the effects of a 12-week yoga program in breast cancer outpatients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy reported significant improvement in positive affect, emotional function and cognitive function, and decreased negative affect in the yoga group as compared to controls  "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Little attention has been paid to the psychological determinants by which benefits are accrued via yoga practice in cancer-related clinical settings. Using a longitudinal multilevel modeling approach, associations between affect, mindfulness, and patient-reported mental health outcomes, including mood disturbance, stress symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQL), were examined in an existing seven-week yoga program for cancer survivors. Participants (N = 66) were assessed before and after the yoga program and at three- and six-month follow-ups. Decreases in mood disturbance and stress symptoms and improvements in HRQL were observed upon program completion. Improvements in mood disturbance and stress symptoms were maintained at the three- and six-month follow-ups. HRQL exhibited further improvement at the three-month follow-up, which was maintained at the six-month follow-up. Improvements in measures of well-being were predicted by initial positive yoga beliefs and concurrently assessed affective and mindfulness predictor variables. Previous yoga experience, affect, mindfulness, and HRQL were related to yoga practice maintenance over the course of the study.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 05/2013; 2013:419496. DOI:10.1155/2013/419496 · 1.88 Impact Factor
"One paper  reported 95% CI only, and three papers [46,48,55] only presented effect sizes, without 95% CI. In nine papers [32,47,48,50,52-55,58], data were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
This study aimed to systematically review the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and to conduct a meta-analysis of the effects of yoga on physical and psychosocial outcomes in cancer patients and survivors.
A systematic literature search in ten databases was conducted in November 2011. Studies were included if they had an RCT design, focused on cancer patients or survivors, included physical postures in the yoga program, compared yoga with a non-exercise or waitlist control group, and evaluated physical and/or psychosocial outcomes. Two researchers independently rated the quality of the included RCTs, and high quality was defined as >50% of the total possible score. Effect sizes (Cohen’s d) were calculated for outcomes studied in more than three studies among patients with breast cancer using means and standard deviations of post-test scores of the intervention and control groups.
Sixteen publications of 13 RCTs met the inclusion criteria, of which one included patients with lymphomas and the others focused on patients with breast cancer. The median quality score was 67% (range: 22–89%). The included studies evaluated 23 physical and 20 psychosocial outcomes. Of the outcomes studied in more than three studies among patients with breast cancer, we found large reductions in distress, anxiety, and depression (d = −0.69 to −0.75), moderate reductions in fatigue (d = −0.51), moderate increases in general quality of life, emotional function and social function (d = 0.33 to 0.49), and a small increase in functional well-being (d = 0.31). Effects on physical function and sleep were small and not significant.
Yoga appeared to be a feasible intervention and beneficial effects on several physical and psychosocial symptoms were reported. In patients with breast cancer, effect size on functional well-being was small, and they were moderate to large for psychosocial outcomes.
BMC Cancer 11/2012; 12(1):559. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-12-559 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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