[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper focuses on the implications of an inadequate public health/ preventive health care system for emergency medicine (EM), the role that EM providers can play in remedying critical health problems, and the benefits gained from a public health approach to EM. A broad definition of public health is adopted, suggesting shared goals of public health and EM. Critical problems posed for EM include alcohol, tobacco, and other drug abuse; injury; violence; sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; occupational and environmental exposures; and the unmet health needs of minorities and women. A blueprint for future merging of public health issues with EM is presented that includes the application of public health principles to 1) clinical practice; 2) public education, community involvement, and public policy advocacy; 3) development of medical school and residency public health/ prevention curricula and teaching methods; and 4) research opportunities and surveillance. Finally, recommendations are proposed that require restructuring the present health care system to provide resources, incentives, and organizational changes that promote an integration of public health and preventive services in the practice of EM.
Academic Emergency Medicine 05/1994; 1(3). · 2.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: "The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure" provides a new guideline for hypertension prevention and management. The following are the key messages(1) In persons older than 50 years, systolic blood pressure (BP) of more than 140 mm Hg is a much more important cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor than diastolic BP; (2) The risk of CVD, beginning at 115/75 mm Hg, doubles with each increment of 20/10 mm Hg; individuals who are normotensive at 55 years of age have a 90% lifetime risk for developing hypertension; (3) Individuals with a systolic BP of 120 to 139 mm Hg or a diastolic BP of 80 to 89 mm Hg should be considered as prehypertensive and require health-promoting lifestyle modifications to prevent CVD; (4) Thiazide-type diuretics should be used in drug treatment for most patients with uncomplicated hypertension, either alone or combined with drugs from other classes. Certain high-risk conditions are compelling indications for the initial use of other antihypertensive drug classes (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers); (5) Most patients with hypertension will require 2 or more antihypertensive medications to achieve goal BP (<140/90 mm Hg, or <130/80 mm Hg for patients with diabetes or chronic kidney disease); (6) If BP is more than 20/10 mm Hg above goal BP, consideration should be given to initiating therapy with 2 agents, 1 of which usually should be a thiazide-type diuretic; and (7) The most effective therapy prescribed by the most careful clinician will control hypertension only if patients are motivated. Motivation improves when patients have positive experiences with and trust in the clinician. Empathy builds trust and is a potent motivator. Finally, in presenting these guidelines, the committee recognizes that the responsible physician's judgment remains paramount.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 05/2003; 289(19):2560-72. · 30.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is controversial whether arterial hypertension (AHT) can be diagnosed in the emergency department (ED). We sought to prospectively investigate the natural time course of blood pressure (BP) to define an optimal period for AHT screening in ED patients with an elevated initial BP.
Patients with a BP greater than 160/100 mm Hg upon ED admission underwent repeated BP measurements every 5 minutes for 2 hours using an automated device. Arterial hypertension was confirmed using 12-hour ambulatory BP measurement or repeated office BP measurement according to the Joint National Committee VII guidelines by the primary care physician after discharge from the hospital.
Systolic BP decreased significantly during the first 10 to 20 minutes of ED stay in hypertensive and normotensive patients without further significant changes thereafter. Diastolic BP remained stable in both hypertensive and normotensive patients. Discrimination between hypertensive and normotensive patients was best between minutes 60 and 80 after ED admission. An average BP of 165/105 mm Hg or higher during this period strongly suggests AHT whereas a BP of less than 130/80 mm Hg excludes AHT with high sensitivity.
Screening for AHT in the ED is possible with high specificity and sensitivity. Blood pressure measurements between minutes 60 and 80 after entry into the ED yield the highest diagnostic value.
American Journal of Emergency Medicine 08/2005; 23(4):474-9. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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