Clostridium difficile ribotypes 001, 017, and 027 are associated with lethal C. difficile infection in Hesse, Germany.
ABSTRACT From January 2008 to April 2009, 72 cases of severe Clostridium difficile infection were reported from 18 different districts in the state of Hesse, Germany. A total of 41 C. difficile isolates from 41 patients were subjected to PCR ribotyping. PCR ribotype (RT) 027 was the most prevalent strain accounting for 24 of 41 (59%) of typed isolates, followed by RT 001 (eight isolates, 20%), RT 017 and 042 (two isolates each), and RT 003, 066, 078, 081, and RKI-034 (one isolate each). Eighteen patients had died within 30 days after admission. C. difficile was reported as underlying cause of or contributing to death in 14 patients, indicating a case fatality rate of 19%. The patients with lethal outcome attributable to C. difficile were 59-89 years-old (median 78 years). Ribotyping results were available for seven isolates associated with lethal outcome, which were identified as RT 027 in three and as RT 001 and 017 in two cases each. Our data suggest that C. difficile RT 027 is prevalent in some hospitals in Hesse and that, in addition to the possibly more virulent RT 027, other toxigenic C. difficile strains like RT 001 and 017 are associated with lethal C. difficile infections in this region.
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ABSTRACT: Since 2003, a rising incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in North America and Europe has coincided with outbreaks of C. difficile PCR ribotype 027. This ribotype was not observed in Poland until 2008. In the period 2008–2010, outbreaks of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea occurred in three different hospitals in Poland. Of 30 C. difficile isolates available for microbiological characterisation, 17 (56%) were positive for binary toxin genes and belonged to PCR ribotype 027 (n = 7) and its closely related PCR ribotype 176 (n = 10). All 17 binary toxin–positive C. difficile strains demonstrated high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≥ 32 mg/L), including ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin, as well as erythromycin and clindamycin (MIC ≥ 256 mg/L for both). Of 14 patients from whom clinical information was available, 50% had a severe form of CDI, defined by fever (>38.5°C), decreased kidney function, and high leukocyte count. We conclude that outbreaks of CDI associated with hypervirulent strains belonging to PCR ribotypes 027 and 176 occurred in hospitals in Poland. Further studies evaluating the clinical impact of type 176 are urgently needed.Anaerobe 01/2014; · 2.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Based on the relationship between Clostridium difficile surface layer protein A (slpA) sequence types (STs) and PCR-ribotypes (RTs), a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay was developed to rapidly confirm C. difficile toxigenicity and, simultaneously, to identify any of five slpA STs, gr, hr, fr, gc8 and 078, that usually correspond with globally distributed RTs, 001, 014, 017, 027 and 078, respectively. The mPCR, containing five slpA type-specific primers, was developed using 46 well-characterised C. difficile reference strains, representing 11 slpA STs, and validated by testing 90 C. difficile clinical isolates. The slpA mPCR correctly identified the five slpA STs without cross-reactions. A much higher proportion of moxifloxacin resistant (32/39; 82%) than susceptible (12/51; 24%) clinical isolates were slpA typeable (χ = 30.3, p < 0.0001), even when RT027 isolates were excluded [10/17 (59%) versus 12/51 (24%); χ = 7.3, p = 0.0071 < 0.01]. slpA mPCR correctly predicted the RTs of all 39 isolates that belonged to the five targeted RTs. slpA mPCR is simple, rapid and inexpensive. It can provisionally identify five globally significant, highly transmissible RTs, particularly among moxifloxacin resistant C. difficile isolates, and could be easily modified to include a broader range of slpA sequence types, based on local requirements.Pathology 09/2013; · 2.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We describe the rate of incidence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) in hematologic and patients undergone stem cell transplant (HSCT) at HC-FMUSP, from January 2007 to June 2011, using two denominators 1,000 patient and 1,000 days of neutropenia and the risk factors associated with the severe form of the disease and death. The ELISA method (Ridascreen-Biopharm, Germany) for the detections of toxins A/B was used to identify C. difficile. A multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate potential factors associated with severe CDAD and death within 14 days after the diagnosis of CDAD, using multiple logistic regression. Sixty-six episodes were identified in 64 patients among 439 patients with diarrhea during the study period. CDA rate of incidence varied from 0.78 to 5.45 per 1,000 days of neutropenia and from 0.65 to 5.45 per 1,000 patient-days. The most common underlying disease was acute myeloid leukemia 30/64 (44%), 32/64 (46%) patients were neutropenic, 31/64 (45%) undergone allogeneic HSCT, 61/64 (88%) had previously used antibiotics and 9/64 (13%) have severe CDAD. Most of the patients (89%) received treatment with oral metronidazole and 19/64 (26%) died. The independent risk factors associated with death were the severe form of CDAD, and use of linezolid.Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo 07/2014; 56(4):325-31. · 0.96 Impact Factor