Clostridium difficile ribotypes 001, 017, and 027 are associated with lethal C. difficile infection in Hesse, Germany.
ABSTRACT From January 2008 to April 2009, 72 cases of severe Clostridium difficile infection were reported from 18 different districts in the state of Hesse, Germany. A total of 41 C. difficile isolates from 41 patients were subjected to PCR ribotyping. PCR ribotype (RT) 027 was the most prevalent strain accounting for 24 of 41 (59%) of typed isolates, followed by RT 001 (eight isolates, 20%), RT 017 and 042 (two isolates each), and RT 003, 066, 078, 081, and RKI-034 (one isolate each). Eighteen patients had died within 30 days after admission. C. difficile was reported as underlying cause of or contributing to death in 14 patients, indicating a case fatality rate of 19%. The patients with lethal outcome attributable to C. difficile were 59-89 years-old (median 78 years). Ribotyping results were available for seven isolates associated with lethal outcome, which were identified as RT 027 in three and as RT 001 and 017 in two cases each. Our data suggest that C. difficile RT 027 is prevalent in some hospitals in Hesse and that, in addition to the possibly more virulent RT 027, other toxigenic C. difficile strains like RT 001 and 017 are associated with lethal C. difficile infections in this region.
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ABSTRACT: Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in hospitals and other healthcare facilities. The elderly are particularly susceptible and at increased risk for adverse outcome as a result of C. difficile infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. difficile colonization among residents of nursing homes in Hesse and to compare it with the prevalence in the general population living outside long-term care facilities (LTCF). We assessed possible risk factors for C. difficile colonization and determined the genotype of circulating strains. C. difficile was isolated from 11/240 (4.6%) nursing home residents and 2/249 (0.8%) individuals living outside LTCF (p = 0.02). Ten of 11 (90.9%) isolates from nursing homes and one of two isolates from the population outside LTCF were toxigenic. The prevalence of C. difficile colonization varied from 0% to 10% between different nursing homes. Facilities with known actual or recent CDI cases were more likely to have colonized residents than facilities without known CDI cases. C. difficile PCR-ribotypes 014 and 001 were the most prevalent genotypes and accounted for 30% and 20% of toxigenic isolates in nursing homes, respectively. Interestingly, no individuals carried the epidemic strain PCR-ribotype 027. Our results suggest that residents of nursing homes in Germany are at high risk for colonization by virulent C. difficile strains. The high prevalence of C. difficile colonization in nursing homes underscores the importance of good adherence to standard infection control precautions even in the absence of a diagnosed infection. They also emphasize the need for specific programs to increase the awareness of healthcare professionals in LTCF for CDI.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e30183. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study analysed 330 Clostridium difficile strains isolated from patients with C. difficile infection who were hospitalized in two university hospitals (H1 and H2) in Warsaw, Poland, over the period 2004-2006. Strains were investigated for the presence of tcdA (A), tcdB (B) and binary toxin (CDT) genes, and antimicrobial susceptibility was determined against nine agents. Among the 330 C. difficile isolates, 150 (45.4 %) were classified as A(+)B(+)CDT(-), 18 (5.5 %) as A(+)B(+)CDT(+), 144 (43.6 %) as A(-)B(+)CDT(-) and 18 (5.5 %) as A(-)B(-)CDT(-). The predominant PCR ribotype in hospitals H1 and H2 was type 017 and accounted for 48.3 and 40.0 %, respectively. Only one PCR ribotype 027 strain was found. The rates of resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin in hospitals H1 and H2 were 53.6 and 53.6 %, and 48.6 and 47.5 %, respectively, whereas resistance rates to the newer fluoroquinolones gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin were 38.5 and 38.5 % (H1) and 38.4 and 40.1 % (H2). Erythromycin resistance was frequently associated with resistance to clindamycin and newer fluoroquinolones in strains belonging to type 017. No metronidazole- and vancomycin-resistant isolates were found, although two C. difficile isolates had elevated MIC values of metronidazole (MIC range 1.0-1.5 mg l(-1)) and 15 strains revealed elevated MIC values for vancomycin (MIC range 1.5-2.0 mg l(-1)). In conclusion, an increase in non-027 CDT-producing C. difficile strains was observed in Poland, but C. difficile PCR ribotype 017 remains a major circulating type.Journal of Medical Microbiology 03/2011; 60(Pt 8):1200-5. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: During the last decade, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) increased markedly inside as well as outside of hospitals. In association with the occurrence of new hypervirulent C. difficile strains, CDI became more important. Until now typing of C. difficile strains has been enabled by PCR-ribotyping. However, this method is restricted to specialized laboratories combined with high maintenance cost. Therefore, we tested MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for typing of C. difficile to provide a fast method for surveillance of CDI. Using a standard set of 25 different C. difficile PCR ribotypes a database was made by different mass spectra recorded in the SARAMIS software (AnagnosTec, Zossen, Germany). The database was validated with 355 C. difficile strains belonging to 29 different PCR ribotypes collected prospectively from all submitted feces samples in 2009. The most frequent PCR ribotypes were type 001 (70%), 027 (4.8%) and 078/126 (4.7%). All three types were recognized by MALDI-TOF MS. We conclude that an extended MALDI-TOF system was capable to recognize specific markers for ribotypes 001, 027 and 078/126 allowing an effective identification of these strains.European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 04/2011; 30(11):1431-6. · 3.02 Impact Factor