Article

Cloning and sequencing of alginate lyase genes from deep-sea strains of Vibrio and Agarivorans and characterization of a new Vibrio enzyme.

Institute of Biogeoscience, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), 2-15 Natsushima, Yokosuka, Japan.
Marine Biotechnology (Impact Factor: 3.15). 11/2009; 12(5):526-33. DOI: 10.1007/s10126-009-9237-7
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Four alginate lyase genes were cloned and sequenced from the genomic DNAs of deep-sea bacteria, namely members of Vibrio and Agarivorans. Three of them were from Vibrio sp. JAM-A9m, which encoded alginate lyases, A9mT, A9mC, and A9mL. A9mT was composed of 286 amino acids and 57% homologous to AlxM of Photobacterium sp. A9mC (221 amino acids) and A9mL (522 amino acids) had the highest degree of similarity to two individual alginate lyases of Vibrio splendidus with 74% and 84% identity, respectively. The other gene for alginate lyase, A1mU, was shotgun cloned from Agarivorans sp. JAM-A1m. A1mU (286 amino acids) showed the highest homology to AlyVOA of Vibrio sp. with 76% identity. All alginate lyases belong to polysaccharide lyase family 7, although, they do not show significant similarity to one another with 14% to 58% identity. Among the above lyases, the recombinant A9mT was purified to homogeneity and characterized. The molecular mass of A9mT was around 28 kDa. The enzyme was remarkably salt activated and showed the highest thermal stability in the presence of NaCl. A9mT favorably degraded mannuronate polymer in alginate. We discussed substrate specificities of family 7 alginate lyases based on their conserved amino acid sequences.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
130 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A bacterial strain, Myt-1, was isolated in Toyama Bay in Toyama Prefecture, Japan. Myt-1 was capable of reducing the thalli of various seaweed species to single cell detritus particles. A 16S rDNA homology search revealed that the closest relative of Myt-1 was Saccharophagus degradans 2-40 (CP000282; 100% similarity), which was first isolated in Chesapeake Bay in Virginia, USA. The Myt-1 strain was capable of degrading more than 10 polysaccharides, almost all of which were also degraded by S. degradans 2-40. Analyses of alginase gene DNA sequence homology, DNA-DNA homology, and zymogram analysis of obtained polysaccharidases suggested that Myt-1 was a new species of Saccharophagus. Thus, Myt-1 is only the second species in this genus, which has contained only one strain and species since 1988, and was tentatively designated Saccharophagus sp. Myt-1. Myt-1 has considerable potential for reducing the volume of seaweed wastes, and for producing functional materials from seaweed substrate.
    MicrobiologyOpen. 03/2012; 1(1):2-12.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Herbivorous marine snails like Littorina species are known to possess alginate lyases in their digestive tracts. The Littorina enzymes have been identified as endolytic polymannuronate (poly(M)) lyases (EC 4.2.2.3); however, it is still unclear which polysaccharide-lyase family (PL) the Littorina enzymes belong to, since no complete primary structure of Littorina enzymes has been determined. Thus, in the present study, we analyzed the primary structure of LbAly28, a 28kDa alginate lyase isozyme of Littorina brevicula, by the cDNA method. LbAly28 cDNAs were amplified by PCR followed by 5'- and 3'-RACE PCRs from the L. brevicula hepatopancreas cDNA. A cDNA covering entire coding region of LbAly28 consisted of 1129bp and encoded an amino-acid sequence of 291 residues. The deduced amino-acid sequence comprised an initiation methionine, a putative signal peptide of 14 residues, a propeptide-like region of 16 residues, and a mature LbAly28 domain of 260 residues. The mature LbAly28 domain showed 43-53% amino-acid identities with other molluscan PL-14 enzymes. The catalytically important residues in PL-14 enzymes, which were identified in the Chlorella virus glucuronate-specific lyase vAL-1 and Aplysia poly(M) lyase AkAly30, were also conserved in LbAly28. Site-directed mutagenesis regarding these residues, that is, replacements of Lys94, Lys97, Thr121, Arg 123, Tyr135, and Tyr137 to Ala, decreased the activity of recombinant LbAly28 to various degrees. From these results we concluded that LbAly28 is a member of PL-14 alginate lyases. Besides the effects of above mutations, we noticed that the replacement of T121 by Ala changed the substrate preference of LbAly28. Namely, the activities toward sodium alginate and poly(MG)-block substrate increased and became comparable with the activity toward poly(M)-block substrate. This suggests that the region including T121 of LbAly28 closely relates to the recognition of poly(MG) region of alginate.
    Carbohydrate research 05/2012; 360:69-77. · 2.03 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, a novel method was proposed for the biological pretreatment of macroalgae (Laminaria japonica, Pachymeniopsis elliptica, and Enteromorpha crinita) for production of volatile fatty acid (VFA) by anaerobic fermentation. The amount of VFA produced from 40g/L of L. japonica increased from 8.3g/L (control) to 15.6g/L when it was biologically pretreated with Vibrio harveyi. The biological treatment of L. japonica with Vibrio spp. was most effective likely due to the alginate lyase activity of Vibrio spp. However, a considerable effect was also observed after biological pretreatment of P. elliptica and E. crinita, which are red and green algae, respectively. Alkaline pretreatment of 40g/L of L. japonica with 0.5N NaOH resulted in an increase of VFA production to 12.2g/L. These results indicate that VFA production from macroalgae can be significantly enhanced using the proposed biological pretreatments.
    Bioresource Technology 07/2013; · 5.04 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
34 Downloads
Available from
May 30, 2014