This study examined the effectiveness of a quality improvement project of a limited didactic session, a medical record audit by peers, and casual feedback within a residency program.
Residents audited their peers' medical records from the clinic of a university hospital in March, April, August, and September 2007. A 24-item quality-of-care score was developed for five common diagnoses, expressed from 0 to 100, with 100 as complete compliance. Audit scores were compared by month and experience of the resident as an auditor.
A total of 469 medical records, audited by 12 residents, for 80 clinic residents, were included. The mean quality-of-care score was 89 (95% CI = 88-91); the scores in March, April, August, and September were 88 (95% CI = 85-91), 94 (95% CI = 90-96), 87 (95% CI = 85-89), and 91 (95% CI = 89-93), respectively. The mean score of 58 records of residents who had experience as auditors was 94 (95% CI = 89-96) compared with 89 (95% CI = 87-90) for those who did not. The score significantly varied (P = .0009) from March to April and from April to August, but it was not significantly associated with experience as an auditor with multivariate analysis.
Residents' compliance with the standards of care was generally high. Residents responded to the project well, but their performance dropped after a break in the intervention. Continuation of the audit process may be necessary for a sustained effect on quality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A changing health care environment has created a need for physicians trained in health system improvement. Residency programs have struggled to teach and assess practice-based learning and improvement and systems-based practice competencies, particularly within ambulatory settings.
We describe a resident-created and resident-led quality and practice-improvement council in an internal medicine continuity clinic. We conducted focus groups and report on residents' perspectives on council membership, practice management experiences, quality improvement projects, and resident satisfaction.
Focus groups were held from May 2009 to March 2010 with internal medicine residents (N = 5/focus group) who participated in the Continuity Clinic Ownership in Resident Education (CCORE) council. Data were analyzed with a grounded theory approach.
DURING THE FOCUS GROUPS, RESIDENTS RESPONDED TO THE QUESTION: "Do you have any new insights into delivering quality patient care in an outpatient clinic as a result of this experience (CCORE membership)?" The qualitative analysis resulted in 6 themes: systems thinking and systems-based care skills; improving quality of patient care; improved clinic efficiency; ownership of patients; need for improved communication of practice changes; and a springboard for research.
CCORE residents participated in system changes and acquired leadership skills while working on practice-based and system problems in a clinic microsystem. We believe this model can be implemented by other residency programs to promote the development of systems thinking in residents, increase their ownership of continuity clinic, and empower them to implement system changes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Assessment of diagnostic image quality in gynaecological ultrasound is an important aspect of imaging department quality assurance. This may be addressed through audit, but who should undertake the audit, what should be measured and how, remains contentious. The aim of this study was to identify whether peer audit is a suitable method of assessing the diagnostic quality of gynaecological ultrasound images. Nineteen gynaecological ultrasound studies were independently assessed by six sonographers utilising a pilot version of an audit tool. Outcome measures were levels of inter-rater agreement using different data collection methods (binary scores, Likert scale, continuous scale), effect of ultrasound study difficulty on study score and whether systematic differences were present between reviewers of different clinical grades and length of experience. Inter-rater agreement ranged from moderate to good depending on the data collection method. A continuous scale gave the highest level of inter-rater agreement with an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.73. A strong correlation (r = 0.89) between study difficulty and study score was yielded. Length of clinical experience between reviewers had no effect on the audit scores, but individuals of a higher clinical grade gave significantly lower scores than those of a lower grade (p = 0.04). Peer audit is a promising tool in the assessment of ultrasound image quality. Continuous scales seem to be the best method of data collection implying a strong element of heuristically driven decision making by reviewing ultrasound practitioners.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose Quality improvement (QI) is a common competency that must be taught in all physician training programmes, yet, there is no clear best approach to teach this content in clinical settings. We conducted a realist systematic review of the existing literature in QI curricula within the clinical setting, highlighting examples of trainees learning QI by doing QI.
Method Candidate theories describing successful QI curricula were articulated a priori. We searched MEDLINE (1 January 2000 to 12 March 2013), the Cochrane Library (2013) and Web of Science (15 March 2013) and reviewed references of prior systematic reviews. Inclusion criteria included study design, setting, population, interventions, clinical and educational outcomes. The data abstraction tool included categories for setting, population, intervention, outcomes and qualitative comments. Themes were iteratively developed and synthesised using realist review methodology. A methodological quality tool assessed the biases, confounders, secular trends, reporting and study quality.
Results Among 39 studies, most were before–after design with resident physicians as the primary population. Twenty-one described clinical interventions and 18 described educational interventions with a mean intervention length of 6.58 (SD=9.16) months. Twenty-eight reported successful clinical improvements; no studies reported clinical outcomes that worsened. Characteristics of successful clinical QI curricula include attention to the interface of educational and clinical systems, careful choice of QI work for the trainees and appropriately trained local faculty.
Conclusions This realist review identified success characteristics to guide training programmes, medical schools, faculty, trainees, accrediting organisations and funders to further develop educational and improvement resources in QI educational programmes.
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