Primary care physicians who treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may expect to encounter oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in about half of patients with ADHD. Up to 20% of patients with ADHD may meet criteria for conduct disorder (CD), and a higher percentage will exhibit aggressiveness or other symptoms of CD without meeting full diagnostic criteria. Primary care physicians self-report more competence in managing ADHD alone than when it is accompanied by comorbid ODD or CD, even though the diagnostic and treatment considerations are similar. The empirical literature on normal and antisocial behavioral development provides insight into understanding how patients with comorbid disruptive behavior may differ from those with uncomplicated ADHD. Primary care physicians who are competent to diagnosis and treat ADHD may develop similar competence in managing patients with ADHD plus oppositional and/or aggressive behavior and, if allied with colleagues who provide specialized psychosocial treatment, may fill an important role in the overall management of complex cases.
"The US congress federal law requires all the additives to be tested before they are added to food, drugs or cosmetics; out of many additives about 200 substances were withdrawn and nowadays only around 35 additives (i.e. coloring agents, preservatives, flavoring agents and sweeteners) are approved by FDA       . Despite of all the studies done, a DOI: 10.5963/PHF0303002 controversy about the negative effects of additive substances found in processed foods still exist and people are faced with a choice whether they can consume those products safely or not. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psychostimulants are first-line therapy for patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, some patients are not optimal responders to monotherapy or present as comorbid for a variety of other disorders that either preclude the use of stimulants or produce a symptom complex that is resistant to monotherapy. Unfortunately, there are few agents well studied in combination with psychostimulants for patients with ADHD. The combination of psychostimulants with alpha2-adrenergic agonists may offer a complementary approach to treating such complex patients. The rationale for combination therapy is that the primary effects of stimulants and alpha2-adrenergic agonists are mediated by different but complementary mechanisms of action, emphasizing different neurotransmitter systems, which together modulate prefrontal cortex functioning. Although immediate-release clonidine and guanfacine have long been studied in ADHD, their usage has been limited by rapid absorption and clearance, negative side effects, and reduced efficacy compared with stimulants. New controlled-release formulations of the alpha2-adrenergic agonists have overcome some of these limitations, with recent clinical trials demonstrating their enhanced tolerability and effectiveness for treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents. Studies with each of these new formulations (ie, guanfacine extended release and clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets) in combination with psychostimulants have demonstrated that the addition of an alpha2-adrenergic agonist to psychostimulant therapy significantly enhances efficacy without compromising safety. This review will encompass the clinical study database for novel formulations of alpha2-adrenergic agonists, enabling the reader to appreciate their place in ADHD treatment as well as the potential utility of a combination approach with psychostimulants for patients with complex ADHD.
Postgraduate Medicine 09/2010; 122(5):78-87. DOI:10.3810/pgm.2010.09.2204 · 1.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Guanfacine extended-release (GXR) is a non-stimulant approved in the US for treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). GXR is a 'first in class' α(2A)-adrenoceptor agonist reformulated to optimize efficacy. GXR enters a rapidly growing but crowded ADHD market as an alternative not only to psychostimulants but also to atomoxetine.
Pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy and safety of GXR are covered based on a literature review (MEDLINE and EMBASE) from 1980 to 2010. Two large pivotal controlled trials are reviewed along with companion safety studies over 24 months. Collateral studies in ADHD children with oppositional symptoms and combination use of GXR in psychostimulant partial-responders are featured.
Novel aspects of apparent GXR mechanism of action may complement existing treatments. Study evidence indicates that GXR is a well-tolerated and effective treatment for children and adolescents with ADHD, and appears efficacious to reduce oppositional symptoms in children with these complicating features. The GXR safety database reflects mild and asymptomatic decreases in both blood pressure and heart rate throughout, with most adverse events being somnolence-related and time-limited.
This review of GXR will allow the reader to determine the place for GXR in the ADHD treatment landscape.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.