Non-recurrent SEPT9 duplications cause hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy

Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA.
Journal of Medical Genetics (Impact Factor: 5.64). 11/2009; 47(9):601-7. DOI: 10.1136/jmg.2009.072348
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Genomic copy number variants have been shown to be responsible for multiple genetic diseases. Recently, a duplication in septin 9 (SEPT9) was shown to be causal for hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy (HNA), an episodic peripheral neuropathy with autosomal dominant inheritance. This duplication was identified in 12 pedigrees that all shared a common founder haplotype.
Based on array comparative genomic hybridisation, we identified six additional heterogeneous tandem SEPT9 duplications in patients with HNA that did not possess the founder haplotype. Five of these novel duplications are intragenic and result in larger transcript and protein products, as demonstrated through reverse transcription-PCR and western blotting. One duplication spans the entire SEPT9 gene and does not generate aberrant transcripts and proteins. The breakpoints of all the duplications are unique and contain regions of microhomology ranging from 2 to 9 bp in size. The duplicated regions contain a conserved 645 bp exon within SEPT9 in which HNA-linked missense mutations have been previously identified, suggesting that the region encoded by this exon is important to the pathogenesis of HNA.
Together with the previously identified founder duplication, a total of seven heterogeneous SEPT9 duplications have been identified in this study as a causative factor of HNA. These duplications account for one third of the patients in our cohort, suggesting that duplications of various sizes within the SEPT9 gene are a common cause of HNA.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Septins are a family of GTP-binding proteins that assemble into cytoskeletal filaments. Unlike other cytoskeletal components, septins form ordered arrays of defined stoichiometry that can polymerize into long filaments and bundle laterally. Septins associate directly with membranes and have been implicated in providing membrane stability and serving as diffusion barriers for membrane proteins. In addition, septins bind other proteins and have been shown to function as multimolecular scaffolds by recruiting components of signaling pathways. Remarkably, septins participate in a spectrum of cellular processes including cytokinesis, ciliogenesis, cell migration, polarity, and cell-pathogen interactions. Given their breadth of functions, it is not surprising that septin abnormalities have also been linked to human diseases. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of septin structure, assembly and function, and discuss these in the context of human disease.
    International review of cell and molecular biology 01/2014; 310:289-339. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-800180-6.00007-4 · 4.52 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract The capacity of cytoskeletal septins to mediate diverse cellular processes is related to their ability to assemble as distinct heterooligomers and higher order structures. However, in many cell types the functional relevance of septins is not well understood. This minireview provides a brief overview of our current knowledge about septins in the non-neuronal cells of the vertebrate nervous system collectively termed glial cells, i.e. astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes, and Schwann cells. The dysregulation of septins observed in various models of myelin pathology is discussed with respect to implications for hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy (HNA) caused by mutations of the human SEPT9-gene.
    Biological Chemistry 09/2013; 395(2). DOI:10.1515/hsz-2013-0240 · 2.69 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neuralgic amyotrophy (NA) is a distinct peripheral nervous system disorder characterized by attacks of acute neuropathic pain and rapid multifocal weakness and atrophy unilaterally in the upper limb. The current hypothesis is that the episodes are caused by an immune-mediated response to the brachial plexus, however, therapeutic strategies for NA have not been well established. We retrospectively reviewed 15 case series of NA; 10 of the 15 patients received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) with methylprednisolone pulse therapy (MPPT) and 9 of these 0 patients showed clinical improvement of motor impairment. Our clinical observations do not contradict the possibility that IVIg with MPPT may be one of the potential therapeutics for NA, however the efficacy remains to be established. Further confirmatory trials are needed in patients with various clinical severities and phases of NA. Further basic research and confirmatory trials should be performed to survey the efficacy of such immunomodulation therapy for NA.
    Internal Medicine 01/2012; 51(12):1493-500. DOI:10.2169/internalmedicine.51.7049 · 0.97 Impact Factor