Non-recurrent SEPT9 duplications cause hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy
ABSTRACT Genomic copy number variants have been shown to be responsible for multiple genetic diseases. Recently, a duplication in septin 9 (SEPT9) was shown to be causal for hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy (HNA), an episodic peripheral neuropathy with autosomal dominant inheritance. This duplication was identified in 12 pedigrees that all shared a common founder haplotype.
Based on array comparative genomic hybridisation, we identified six additional heterogeneous tandem SEPT9 duplications in patients with HNA that did not possess the founder haplotype. Five of these novel duplications are intragenic and result in larger transcript and protein products, as demonstrated through reverse transcription-PCR and western blotting. One duplication spans the entire SEPT9 gene and does not generate aberrant transcripts and proteins. The breakpoints of all the duplications are unique and contain regions of microhomology ranging from 2 to 9 bp in size. The duplicated regions contain a conserved 645 bp exon within SEPT9 in which HNA-linked missense mutations have been previously identified, suggesting that the region encoded by this exon is important to the pathogenesis of HNA.
Together with the previously identified founder duplication, a total of seven heterogeneous SEPT9 duplications have been identified in this study as a causative factor of HNA. These duplications account for one third of the patients in our cohort, suggesting that duplications of various sizes within the SEPT9 gene are a common cause of HNA.
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ABSTRACT: Peripheral nerve myelin facilitates rapid impulse conduction and normal motor and sensory functions. Many aspects of myelin biogenesis, glia-axonal interactions, and nerve homeostasis are poorly understood at the molecular level. We therefore hypothesized that only a fraction of all relevant myelin proteins has been identified so far. Combining gel-based and gel-free proteomic approaches, we identified 545 proteins in purified mouse sciatic nerve myelin, including 36 previously known myelin constituents. By mass spectrometric quantification, the predominant P0, periaxin, and myelin basic protein constitute 21, 16, and 8% of the total myelin protein, respectively, suggesting that their relative abundance was previously misestimated due to technical limitations regarding protein separation and visualization. Focusing on tetraspan-transmembrane proteins, we validated novel myelin constituents using immuno-based methods. Bioinformatic comparison with mRNA-abundance profiles allowed the categorization in functional groups coregulated during myelin biogenesis and maturation. By differential myelin proteome analysis, we found that the abundance of septin 9, the protein affected in hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy, is strongly increased in a novel mouse model of demyelinating neuropathy caused by the loss of prion protein. Finally, the systematic comparison of our compendium with the positions of human disease loci allowed us to identify several candidate genes for hereditary demyelinating neuropathies. These results illustrate how the integration of unbiased proteome, transcriptome, and genome data can contribute to a molecular dissection of the biogenesis, cell biology, metabolism, and pathology of myelin.The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 11/2011; 31(45):16369-86. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4016-11.2011 · 6.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Different types of human gene mutation may vary in size, from structural variants (SVs) to single base-pair substitutions, but what they all have in common is that their nature, size and location are often determined either by specific characteristics of the local DNA sequence environment or by higher order features of the genomic architecture. The human genome is now recognized to contain "pervasive architectural flaws" in that certain DNA sequences are inherently mutation prone by virtue of their base composition, sequence repetitivity and/or epigenetic modification. Here, we explore how the nature, location and frequency of different types of mutation causing inherited disease are shaped in large part, and often in remarkably predictable ways, by the local DNA sequence environment. The mutability of a given gene or genomic region may also be influenced indirectly by a variety of noncanonical (non-B) secondary structures whose formation is facilitated by the underlying DNA sequence. Since these non-B DNA structures can interfere with subsequent DNA replication and repair and may serve to increase mutation frequencies in generalized fashion (i.e., both in the context of subtle mutations and SVs), they have the potential to serve as a unifying concept in studies of mutational mechanisms underlying human inherited disease.Human Mutation 10/2011; 32(10):1075-99. DOI:10.1002/humu.21557 · 5.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neuralgic amyotrophy--also known as Parsonage-Turner syndrome or brachial plexus neuritis--is a distinct and painful peripheral neuropathy that causes episodes of multifocal paresis and sensory loss in a brachial plexus distribution with concomitant involvement of other PNS structures (such as the lumbosacral plexus or phrenic nerve) in a large number of patients. The phenotype can be limited or extensive and the amount of disability experienced also varies between patients, but many are left with residual disabilities that affect their ability to work and their everyday life. Both idiopathic and hereditary forms exist. The latter form is genetically heterogeneous, but in 55% of affected families, neuralgic amyotrophy is associated with a point mutation or duplication in the SEPT9 gene on chromosome 17q25. The disease is thought to result from an underlying genetic predisposition, a susceptibility to mechanical injury of the brachial plexus (possibly representing disturbance of the epineurial blood-nerve barrier), and an immune or autoimmune trigger for the attacks. The precise pathophysiological mechanisms are still unclear; treatment is empirical, and preventive measures are not yet available. This Review provides an overview of the current clinical and pathophysiological concepts and research topics in neuralgic amyotrophy.Nature Reviews Neurology 05/2011; 7(6):315-22. DOI:10.1038/nrneurol.2011.62 · 14.10 Impact Factor