Personality disorders among alcohol-dependent patients manifesting or not manifesting cocaine abuse: a comparative pilot study.

Facultad de Psicología, Universidad del País Vasco, 20018 San Sebastián, Spain.
Substance Use &amp Misuse (Impact Factor: 1.23). 01/2009; 44(7):981-9. DOI: 10.1080/10826080802494735
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study assessed personality disorders (PDs) in 158 alcohol-dependent outpatients (62 manifesting cocaine abuse and 96 without cocaine abuse) with the International Personality Disorders Examination interview between 2003 and 2006. Thirty-nine alcohol-dependent/cocaine abusers (62.9% of this group) and 51 only alcohol-dependent patients (53.1% of this group) manifested at least one PD. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in the overall prevalence rate of PDs. The most prevalent PDs, among the alcohol-dependent/cocaine abusers, were antisocial (21%), narcissistic (14.5%), and borderline (11.3%) PDs. The most frequently diagnosed PDs among the only alcohol-dependent patients were obsessive-compulsive (20.8%), paranoid (10.4%), and dependent (9.4%) PDs. There were significant differences between the groups. The study limitations are discussed.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The present study compares the prevalence rates of 12 personality disorders (PDs) among patients with alcohol, drug, and dual dependence through chi-square tests and analyses of variance. It further investigates possible predictors of these PDs through multiple linear regression analyses. Data were gathered in 2007-2008 among 274 patients admitted to intensive, residential substance abuse treatment programs in Belgium, using the ADP-IV (Assessment of DSM-IV Personality Disorders), the EuropASI (European version of the Addiction Severity Index), and the MINI (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview). The analyses showed that drug- and dual-dependent patients have higher PD prevalence rates than alcohol-dependent patients. The severity, but not the nature of the dependence, appears as an important predictor for personality pathology.
    Substance Use &amp Misuse 01/2012; 47(6):649-61. DOI:10.3109/10826084.2011.653427
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine whether the additional interventions to standard care are cost-effective in addressing cocaine and alcohol abuse at 4 months (4 M) and 12 months (12 M) from baseline. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of a randomized controlled trial with three arms: (1) NIDA's Standard intervention (SI); (2) SI plus a Well Woman Exam (WWE); and, (3) SI, WWE, plus four Educational Sessions (4ES). To obtain an additional cocaine abstainer, WWE compared to SI cost $7,223 at 4 M and $3,611 at 12 M. Per additional alcohol abstainer, WWE compared to SI cost $3,611 and $7,223 at 4 M and 12 M, respectively. At 12 M, 4ES was dominated (more costly and less effective) by WWE for abstinence outcomes. To our knowledge, this is the first cost-effectiveness analysis simultaneously examining cocaine and alcohol abuse in women. Depending on primary outcomes sought and priorities of policy makers, peer-delivered interventions can be a cost-effective way to address the needs of this growing, underserved population. NCT01235091.
    PLoS ONE 08/2012; 7(3):e33594. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0033594
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This review will address pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD)—the clinical presentation, the challenges involved in diagnosing NPD, and significant areas of co-occurring psychopathology (i.e., affective disorder, substance usage, and suicide). Major depressive disorder is the most common comorbid disorder in patients with pathological narcissism or NPD. Need for self-enhancement and chronic disillusionment with self make these individuals particularly susceptible to substance use. Suicidal preoccupation in these patients is characterized by the absence of depression, lack of communication, self-esteem dysregulation, and life events that decrease self-esteem. The diagnostic focus on patients' external characteristics and interpersonal behavior tends to dismiss the importance of their internal distress and painful experiences of self-esteem fluctuations, self-criticism, and emotional dysregulation. A collaborative and exploratory diagnostic approach to pathological narcissism and NPD is outlined that aims at engaging the patients and promoting their curiosity, narration, and self-reflection. Alliance building with a narcissistic patient is a slow and gradual process and mistakes are common. A central task is to balance these patients' avoidance and sudden urges to reject the therapist and drop out of treatment with the goal of encouraging and enabling them to face and reflect upon their experiences and behavior. Implications for treatment and possible areas or indications of change include: interpersonal and vocational functioning; sense of agency and self-direction; emotion regulation and ability to understand, tolerate, and modulate feelings; reflective ability; and ability to mourn the loss of wished for or unreachable internal self-states, relationships, and external ideals.
    03/2013; 11:167-177. DOI:10.1176/appi.focus.11.2.167


Available from