Downmodulation of Bcl-2 sensitizes metastatic LNCaP-LN3 cells to undergo apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway.
ABSTRACT We explored the mechanisms of apoptosis after Bcl-2 protein downmodulation in metastatic LNCaP-LN3 cells (LN3).
LNCaP, LNCaP-Pro5 (Pro5) and LN3 cells were cultured in 5% charcoal-stripped serum (CSS) or in R1881 (synthetic androgen) and bicalutamide (synthetic anti-androgen) and growth inhibition was assessed. Expression levels of androgen receptor (AR) and Bcl-2 were determined. LN3 cells were transfected with small interfering RNA Bcl-2 (siRNA Bcl-2) or control siRNA oligonucleotides. Rates of apoptosis and proliferation were obtained. Cytochrome c localization in treated and control cells was assessed +/- cyclosporine A (CsA). Caspases 9, 3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage (PARP) were measured upon downmodulation of Bcl-2; and cell growth inhibition in vitro after Bcl-2 modulation combined with docetaxel chemotherapy was determined.
LN3 cells maintained growth under castrate conditions in vitro. AR protein amplification did not explain castrate-resistant LN3 cell growth. Bcl-2 protein levels in LN3 cells were significantly higher than in Pro5 cells, and were effectively downmodulated by siRNA Bcl-2. Subsequently increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation mediated by cytochrome c was noted and this was reversed by CsA. siRNA Bcl-2-transfected LN3 cells exhibited elevated levels of caspases 9, 3, and PARP cleavage. Exposure of LN3 cells to docetaxel led to increased apoptosis, and simultaneous downmodulation of Bcl-2 substantially enhanced this effect.
Downmodulation of Bcl-2 in metastatic castrate-resistant LNCaP-LN3 cells led to apoptosis via a cytochrome c-dependent pathway that was enhanced with docetaxel treatment.
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ABSTRACT: Prostate cancers that are progressing on medical and surgical therapies designed to ablate the action of androgens continue to express androgen receptor (AR) and to depend on signaling through the receptor for growth. A more clinically relevant classification of castration-resistant disease focuses on the mechanisms of receptor activation, which include (1) changes in the level of ligand(s) in tumor tissue; (2) increased levels of the protein due to gene amplification or altered mRNA expression; (3) activating mutations in the receptor that affect structure and function; (4) changes in coregulatory molecules including coactivators and corepressors; and (5) factors that lead to activation of the receptor independent of the level of ligand or receptor allowing kinase cross talk. From an AR perspective, the term "hormone refractory" is inappropriate. On the basis of this schema, we discuss strategies that are focused on the AR either directly or indirectly, as single agents or in combination, that are in clinical development.Journal of Clinical Oncology 12/2005; 23(32):8253-61. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that the bcl-2 gene encodes a mitochondrial protein that contributes to neoplastic cell expansion primarily by promoting cell survival through interference with "programmed cell death" (PCD), also termed "apoptosis." Because many chemotherapeutic drugs are capable of initiating pathways leading to apoptosis, we determined whether deregulated bcl-2 expression could render cells resistant to several drugs commonly used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, including dexamethasone (DEX), methotrexate (MTX), 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-cytosine (Ara-C), etoposide (VP-16), vincristine (VC), cisplatin (CP), and hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4-HC). For these experiments, we achieved high levels of p26-Bcl-2 protein production in a human pre-B-cell leukemia line 697 by stable infection with a recombinant bcl-2-containing retrovirus and then compared these cells with control virus-infected 697 cells. Control 697 cells were induced to undergo apoptosis by all drugs tested as defined by DNA degradation into oligonucleosomal-length fragments, cell shrinkage, and subsequent cell death. In contrast, 697 cells with elevated Bcl-2 protein levels exhibited strikingly prolonged cell survival and markedly reduced DNA fragmentation when cultured in the presence of these antineoplastic agents. Although high levels of Bcl-2 protein protected 697 cells from the acute cytotoxic effects of DEX and the other drugs tested, Bcl-2 did not prevent these drugs from suppressing the proliferation of 697 cells. However, when 697 cells were treated with DEX or MTX for 3 days, then washed and cultured in semisolid media without drugs, bcl-2-virus-infected cells gave rise to colonies at much higher frequencies than 697 cells stably infected with control virus. These results indicate that by protecting 697 leukemic cells from the acute cytotoxicity of DEX and some other chemotherapeutic drugs, high levels of p26-Bcl-2 can create the opportunity for re-initiation of cell growth when drugs are withdrawn. The findings may be relevant to clinical correlative studies of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients that have found an association between worse prognosis and bcl-2 gene rearrangements or t[14;18] translocations.Blood 02/1993; 81(1):151-7. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Stably transfected Jurkat T cells were produced in which Bax expression is inducible by muristerone A. The cell death resulting from induction of the overexpression of Bax was prevented by inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) with cyclosporin A (CyA) in combination with the phospholipase A2 inhibitor aristolochic acid (ArA). The caspase-3 inhibitor Z-Asp-Glu-Val aspartic acid fluoromethylketone (Z-DEVD-FMK) had no effect on the loss of viability. The MPT was measured as the CyA plus ArA-preventable loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim). The MPT was accompanied by the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria, caspase-3 activation in the cytosol, cleavage of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP), and DNA fragmentation, all of which were inhibited by CyA plus ArA. Z-DEVD-FMK had no effect on the loss of DeltaPsim and the redistribution of cytochrome c but did prevent caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage, and DNA fragmentation. It is concluded that Bax induces the MPT, a critical event in the loss of cell viability. In addition to the cell death, the MPT mediates other typical manifestations of apoptosis in this model, namely release of cytochrome c, caspase activation with PARP cleavage, and DNA fragmentation.Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/1998; 273(13):7770-5. · 4.65 Impact Factor