Downmodulation of Bcl-2 sensitizes metastatic LNCaP-LN3 cells to undergo apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway.
ABSTRACT We explored the mechanisms of apoptosis after Bcl-2 protein downmodulation in metastatic LNCaP-LN3 cells (LN3).
LNCaP, LNCaP-Pro5 (Pro5) and LN3 cells were cultured in 5% charcoal-stripped serum (CSS) or in R1881 (synthetic androgen) and bicalutamide (synthetic anti-androgen) and growth inhibition was assessed. Expression levels of androgen receptor (AR) and Bcl-2 were determined. LN3 cells were transfected with small interfering RNA Bcl-2 (siRNA Bcl-2) or control siRNA oligonucleotides. Rates of apoptosis and proliferation were obtained. Cytochrome c localization in treated and control cells was assessed +/- cyclosporine A (CsA). Caspases 9, 3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage (PARP) were measured upon downmodulation of Bcl-2; and cell growth inhibition in vitro after Bcl-2 modulation combined with docetaxel chemotherapy was determined.
LN3 cells maintained growth under castrate conditions in vitro. AR protein amplification did not explain castrate-resistant LN3 cell growth. Bcl-2 protein levels in LN3 cells were significantly higher than in Pro5 cells, and were effectively downmodulated by siRNA Bcl-2. Subsequently increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation mediated by cytochrome c was noted and this was reversed by CsA. siRNA Bcl-2-transfected LN3 cells exhibited elevated levels of caspases 9, 3, and PARP cleavage. Exposure of LN3 cells to docetaxel led to increased apoptosis, and simultaneous downmodulation of Bcl-2 substantially enhanced this effect.
Downmodulation of Bcl-2 in metastatic castrate-resistant LNCaP-LN3 cells led to apoptosis via a cytochrome c-dependent pathway that was enhanced with docetaxel treatment.
Article: The Akt-inhibitor Erufosine induces apoptotic cell death in prostate cancer cells and increases the short term effects of ionizing radiation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway is frequently deregulated in prostate cancer and associated with neoplastic transformation, malignant progression, and enhanced resistance to classical chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Thus, it is a promising target for therapeutic intervention. In the present study, the cytotoxic action of the Akt inhibitor Erufosine (ErPC3) was analyzed in prostate cancer cells and compared to the cytotoxicity of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Moreover, the efficacy of combined treatment with Akt inhibitors and ionizing radiation in prostate cancer cells was examined. Prostate cancer cell lines PC3, DU145, and LNCaP were treated with ErPC3 (1-100 µM), LY294002 (25-100 µM), irradiated (0-10 Gy), or subjected to combined treatments. Cell viability was determined by the WST-1 assay. Apoptosis induction was analyzed by flow cytometry after staining with propidium iodide in a hypotonic citrate buffer, and by Western blotting using antibodies against caspase-3 and its substrate PARP. Akt activity and regulation of the expression of Bcl-2 family members and key downstream effectors involved in apoptosis regulation were examined by Western blot analysis. The Akt inhibitor ErPC3 exerted anti-neoplastic effects in prostate cancer cells, however with different potency. The anti-neoplastic action of ErPC3 was associated with reduced phosphoserine 473-Akt levels and induction of apoptosis. PC3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells were also sensitive to treatment with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. However, the ErPC3-sensitive PC3-cells were less susceptible to LY294002 than the ErPC3-refractory LNCaP cells. Although both cell lines were largely resistant to radiation-induced apoptosis, both cell lines showed higher levels of apoptotic cell death when ErPC3 was combined with radiotherapy. Our data suggest that constitutive Akt activation and survival are controlled by different different molecular mechanisms in the two prostate cancer cell lines - one which is sensitive to the Akt-inhibitor ErPC3 and one which is more sensitive to the PI3K-inhibitor LY294002. Our findings underline the importance for the definition of predictive biomarkers that allow the selection patients that may benefit from the treatment with a specific signal transduction modifier.Radiation Oncology 11/2010; 5:108. · 2.32 Impact Factor
Article: Flavonoid ampelopsin inhibits the growth and metastasis of prostate cancer in vitro and in mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of a novel flavonoid, ampelopsin (AMP) on the growth and metastasis of prostate cancer cells. AMP showed the more potent activity in inhibiting the proliferation of androgen-sensitive LNCaP and, to less extent, androgen-independent PC-3 human prostate cancer cell lines in vitro, primarily by induction of apoptosis associated with down-regulation of bcl-2. On the other hand, AMP showed much less activity in inhibiting the proliferation of normal prostate epithelial cells than that of prostate cancer cell lines. AMP also inhibited the migration and invasion of PC-3 cells in vitro associated with down-regulation of CXCR4 expression. In the animal study using an orthotopic prostate tumor model, AMP (150 and 300 mg/kg body weight) inhibited the growth of PC-3 tumors and lymph node and lung metastases in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to the control mice, mice treated with AMP at 300 mg/kg BW had reduced final tumor weight by 49.2% (P<0.05), lymph node metastases by 54.5% (P = 0.3) and lung metastases by 93% (P<0.05), but had no apparent alteration on food intake or body weight. The in vivo anti-growth and anti-metastasis activities of AMP were associated with induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation of prostate cancer cells, reduction of prostate tumor angiogenesis, and reduction of CXCR4 expression. Our results provide supporting evidence to warrant further investigation to develop AMP as a novel efficacious and safe candidate agent against progression and metastasis of prostate cancer.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e38802. · 4.09 Impact Factor