Article

Regulators of the cytoplasmic dynein motor.

Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA.
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology (Impact Factor: 36.46). 12/2009; 10(12):854-65. DOI: 10.1038/nrm2804
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Eukaryotic cells use cytoskeletal motor proteins to transport many different intracellular cargos. Numerous kinesins and myosins have evolved to cope with the various transport needs that have arisen during eukaryotic evolution. Surprisingly, a single cytoplasmic dynein (a minus end-directed microtubule motor) carries out similarly diverse transport activities as the many different types of kinesin. How is dynein coupled to its wide range of cargos and how is it spatially and temporally regulated? The answer could lie in the several multifunctional adaptors, including dynactin, lissencephaly 1, nuclear distribution protein E (NUDE) and NUDE-like, Bicaudal D, Rod-ZW10-Zwilch and Spindly, that regulate dynein function and localization.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Julia R Kardon, Dec 18, 2013
0 Followers
 · 
178 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Microtubules (MTs) and associated motors play a central role in nuclear migration, which is crucial for diverse biological functions including cell division, polarity, and sexual reproduction. In this paper, we report a dual mechanism underlying nuclear congression during fission yeast karyogamy upon mating of haploid cells. Using microfluidic chambers for long-term imaging, we captured the precise timing of nuclear congression and identified two minus end-directed motors operating in parallel in this process. Kinesin-14 Klp2 associated with MTs may cross-link and slide antiparallel MTs emanating from the two nuclei, whereas dynein accumulating at spindle pole bodies (SPBs) may pull MTs nucleated from the opposite SPB. Klp2-dependent nuclear congression proceeds at constant speed, whereas dynein accumulation results in an increase of nuclear velocity over time. Surprisingly, the light intermediate chain Dli1, but not dynactin, is required for this previously unknown function of dynein. We conclude that efficient nuclear congression depends on the cooperation of two minus end-directed motors. © 2015 Scheffler et al.
    The Journal of Cell Biology 04/2015; 209(1):47-58. DOI:10.1083/jcb.201409087 · 9.69 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Spinal muscular atrophy is a disorder of lower motor neurons, most commonly caused by recessive mutations in SMN1 on chromosome 5q. Cases without SMN1 mutations are subclassified according to phenotype. Spinal muscular atrophy, lower ex- tremity-predominant, is characterized by lower limb muscle weakness and wasting, associated with reduced numbers of lumbar motor neurons and is caused by mutations in DYNC1H1, which encodes a microtubule motor protein in the dynein-dynactin complex and one of its cargo adaptors, BICD2. We have now identified 32 patients with BICD2 mutations from nine different families, providing detailed insights into the clinical phenotype and natural history of BICD2 disease. BICD2 spinal muscular atrophy, lower extremity predominant most commonly presents with delayed motor milestones and ankle contractures. Additional features at presentation include arthrogryposis and congenital dislocation of the hips. In all affected individuals, weakness and wasting is lower-limb predominant, and typically involves both proximal and distal muscle groups. There is no evidence of sensory nerve involvement. Upper motor neuron signs are a prominent feature in a subset of individuals, including one family with exclusively adult-onset upper motor neuron features, consistent with a diagnosis of hereditary spastic paraplegia. In all cohort members, lower motor neuron features were static or only slowly progressive, and the majority remained ambulant throughout life. Muscle MRI in six individuals showed a common pattern of muscle involvement with fat deposition in most thigh muscles, but sparing of the adductors and semitendinosus. Muscle pathology findings were highly variable and included pseudomyopathic features, neuropathic features, and minimal change. The six causative mutations, including one not previously reported, result in amino acid changes within all three coiled-coil domains of the BICD2 protein, and include a possible ‘hot spot’ mutation, p.Ser107Leu present in four families. We used the recently solved crystal structure of a highly conserved region of the Drosophila orthologue of BICD2 to further-explore how the p.Glu774Gly substitution inhibits the binding of BICD2 to Rab6. Overall, the features of BICD2 spinal muscular atrophy, lower extremity predominant are consistent with a pathological process that prefer- entially affects lumbar lower motor neurons, with or without additional upper motor neuron involvement. Defining the phenotypic features in this, the largest BICD2 disease cohort reported to date, will facilitate focused genetic testing and filtering of next generation sequencing-derived variants in cases with similar features.
    Brain 01/2015; DOI:10.1093/brain/awu356 · 10.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chlamydia (C.) psittaci, the causative agent of psittacosis in birds and humans, is the most important zoonotic pathogen of the family Chlamydiaceae. During a unique developmental cycle of this obligate intracellular pathogen, the infectious elementary body gains access to the susceptible host cell, where it transforms into the replicative reticulate body. C. psittaci uses dynein motor proteins for optimal early development. Chlamydial proteins that mediate this process are unknown. Two-hybrid screening with the C. psittaci inclusion protein IncB as bait against a HeLa Yeast Two-hybrid (YTH) library revealed that the host protein Snapin interacts with IncB. Snapin is a cytoplasmic protein that plays a multivalent role in intracellular trafficking. Confocal fluorescence microscopy using an IncB-specific antibody demonstrated that IncB, Snapin, and dynein were co-localized near the inclusion of C. psittaci-infected HEp-2 cells. This co-localization was lost when Snapin was depleted by RNAi. The interaction of Snapin with both IncB and dynein has been shown in vitro and in vivo. We propose that Snapin connects chlamydial inclusions with the microtubule network by interacting with both IncB and dynein.
    International journal of medical microbiology: IJMM 04/2014; 304(5-6). DOI:10.1016/j.ijmm.2014.03.005 · 3.42 Impact Factor