[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Approaches for cervical cancer prevention are changing. Screening still remains the most effective method for cervical cancer prevention. Guidelines are moving to an older group of women to be screened less frequently with combinations of technologies that include biomarkers and cytology. HPV vaccination is an appropriate option for this older group of women as well, should the woman not wish to make her decision about vaccination until 21 years of age, the age of screening. Parents making decisions about HPV vaccination for their young adolescent daughters need to be fully informed that only continued screening prevents cervical cancer. HPV vaccination reduces the possibility of their daughter having an abnormal Pap test by 10% if the vaccines have not waned by the time the young adolescent becomes sexually active. HPV vaccine efficacy must last at least 15 years to contribute to the prevention of cervical cancers. At this time, protection against cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 (CIN 2/3) is 5 years for Gardasil and 8.4 years for Cervarix. The value of the current protection HPV vaccines offer will be viewed differently by different women. Physicians' ethical duties are to provide full explanation of the risks and benefits of adding HPV vaccination to the ongoing screening programs, and to support women in their personal choice for cervical cancer prevention.
Discovery medicine 07/2010; 10(50):7-17. · 3.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recent introduction of oil-in-water emulsions as adjuvants in several pandemic vaccines, such as the H1N1 vaccine, has challenged regulatory authorities to establish their safety in the general population, as well as in specific populations. Pregnant women were advised to be a target group for H1N1 vaccination owing to the risk of this group developing serious complications with this infection. However, the addition of adjuvants to the H1N1 vaccine has initiated a discussion on the safety of adjuvanted vaccines in this special population. Changes in the maternal immune system are essential for acceptance of the fetus and for development of the placenta. The potential effects on pregnancy of interfering with this uniquely adapted immune balance through the induction of proinflammatory reactions such as those induced by adjuvanted vaccines have only been studied rarely. Here, we review the available information and discuss how vaccination may interfere with pregnancy, fetal development and pregnancy outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infection of the female genital tract can result in serious morbidities and mortalities from reproductive disability, pelvic inflammatory disease and cancer, to impacts on the fetus, such as infant blindness. While therapeutic agents are available, frequent testing and treatment is required to prevent the occurrence of the severe disease sequelae. Hence, sexually transmitted infections remain a major public health burden with ongoing social and economic barriers to prevention and treatment. Unfortunately, while there are two success stories in the development of vaccines to protect against HPV infection of the female reproductive tract, many serious infectious agents impacting on the female reproductive tract still have no vaccines available. Vaccination to prevent infection of the female reproductive tract is an inherently difficult target, with many impacting factors, such as appropriate vaccination strategies/mechanisms to induce a suitable protective response locally in the genital tract, variation in the local immune responses due to the hormonal cycle, selection of vaccine antigen(s) that confers effective protection against multiple variants of a single pathogen (e.g., the different serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis) and timing of the vaccine administration prior to infection exposure. Despite these difficulties, there are numerous ongoing efforts to develop effective vaccines against these infectious agents and it is likely that this important human health field will see further major developments in the next 5 years.
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