Fractures of the clivus: a contemporary series in the computed tomography era.
ABSTRACT We report the morbidity and mortality associated with fractures of the clivus and discuss management approaches specific to this unique diagnostic entity.
We performed a boolean search of our electronic medical record database to identify patients with fractures of the clivus that were diagnosed using computed tomography of the head. A retrospective imaging and chart analysis was completed to further characterize the fractures and to analyze outcomes.
Between January 1999 and December 2007, 41 patients were identified with fractures of the clivus. We found a 0.21% overall incidence among all head-injured patients presenting to our institution and a 2.3% incidence among those patients with a cranial fracture. Ten of 41 patients (24.4%) died, and neurological and vascular complications associated with central cranial base fractures were observed in 19 of 41 patients (46%). Furthermore, associated cranial fractures remote from the central cranial base and associated intracranial hemorrhages were observed in 40 of 41 (97.6%) and 33 of 41 (80.5%) patients, respectively. In terms of outcomes, 26 of 41 patients (63.5%) had a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 12 or greater at the time of discharge from the hospital.
We demonstrate a lower than previously reported mortality rate in patients with clival fractures. Nevertheless, as a result of location, fractures of the clivus were frequently associated with a high rate of complications and neurological sequelae.
- SourceAvailable from: Ricardo L Carrau[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background: In patients with large dural defects of the anterior and ventral skull base after endonasal skull base surgery, there is a significant risk of a postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak after reconstruction. Reconstruction with vascularized tissue is desirable to facilitate rapid healing, especially in irradiated patients.Methods: We developed a neurovascular pedicled flap of the nasal septum mucoperiosteum and mucoperichondrium based on the nasoseptal artery, a branch of the posterior septal artery (Hadad-Bassagasteguy flap [HBF]). A retrospective review of patients undergoing endonasal skull base surgery at the University of Rosario, Argentina, and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center was performed to identify patients who were reconstructed with a vascularized septal mucosal flap.Results: Forty-three patients undergoing endonasal cranial base surgery were repaired with the septal mucosal flap. Two patients with postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leaks (5%) were successfully treated with focal fat grafts. We encountered no infectious or wound complications in this series of patients. One patient experienced a posterior nose bleed from the posterior nasal artery. This was controlled with electrocautery and the flap blood supply was preserved.Conclusion: The HBF is a versatile and reliable reconstructive technique for defects of the anterior, middle, clival, and parasellar skull base. Its use has resulted in a sharp decrease in the incidence of postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leaks after endonasal skull base surgery and is recommended for the reconstruction of large dural defects and when postoperative radiation therapy is anticipated.The Laryngoscope 09/2006; 116(10):1882 - 1886. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bilateral transverse basal skull fractures resulting from lateral crushing injuries involve fractures of the clivus that present clinically with multiple cranial nerve injuries and possible delayed vascular injuries due to the tight neural and vascular entry and exit routes present in this region. A case of a young patient with an extensive basal skull fracture is presented with description of the clinical signs and symptoms in relation to the neuroradiological findings. Clinico-anatomic correlations have been reiterated. A case of a young patient suffering a bilateral crush injury resulting in a basal transverse clivus and petrous bone fracture is presented. Multiple cranial nerve injuries, unilateral and bilateral, were present (CN III, VI, VII). This clinical presentation correlated well with the anatomical location and extension of the respective cranial nerves at the level of the skull base and along the fracture line extending bilaterally through the clivus and petrous bone. Initial neurological and neuroradiological investigations should be aimed at promptly detecting cranial nerve injuries and their correlating fracture injuries at the skull base. The possible development and progression of delayed neurological deficits should also be kept in mind and investigated.Surgical Neurology 09/2000; 54(2):171-7. · 1.67 Impact Factor
- Radiology 08/1964; 83:36-40. · 6.34 Impact Factor