Daily Oral Everolimus Activity in Patients With Metastatic Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors After Failure of Cytotoxic Chemotherapy: A Phase II Trial

The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States
Journal of Clinical Oncology (Impact Factor: 18.43). 11/2009; 28(1):69-76. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2009.24.2669
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT PURPOSE No established treatment exists for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) progression after failure of chemotherapy. Everolimus (RAD001), an oral inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin, in combination with octreotide has demonstrated encouraging antitumor activity in patients with NETs. PATIENTS AND METHODS This open-label, phase II study assessed the clinical activity of everolimus in patients with metastatic pancreatic NETs who experienced progression on or after chemotherapy. Patients were stratified by prior octreotide therapy (stratum 1: everolimus 10 mg/d, n = 115; stratum 2: everolimus 10 mg/d plus octreotide long-acting release [LAR], n = 45). Tumor assessments (using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) were performed every 3 months. Chromogranin A (CgA) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) were assessed monthly if elevated at baseline. Trough concentrations of everolimus and octreotide were assessed. Results By central radiology review, in stratum 1, there were 11 partial responses (9.6%), 78 patients (67.8%) with stable disease (SD), and 16 patients (13.9%) with progressive disease; median progression-free survival (PFS) was 9.7 months. In stratum 2, there were two partial responses (4.4%), 36 patients (80%) with SD, and no patients with progressive disease; median PFS was 16.7 months. Patients with an early CgA or NSE response had a longer PFS compared with patients without an early response. Coadministration of octreotide LAR and everolimus did not impact exposure to either drug. Most adverse events were mild to moderate and were consistent with those previously seen with everolimus. CONCLUSION Daily everolimus, with or without concomitant octreotide LAR, demonstrates antitumor activity as measured by objective response rate and PFS and is well tolerated in patients with advanced pancreatic NETs after failure of prior systemic chemotherapy.

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    • "Everolimus has been evaluated in combination with octreotide in several studies, including patients with pancreatic NET in stratum 2 of the RADIANT-1 trial and patients with carcinoid tumors in the phase III RADIANT-2 trial. In the RADIANT-1 trial, patients receiving octreotide and everolimus had longer PFS compared with patients receiving everolimus monotherapy [31]. However, the study was not randomized or designed to make this comparison. "
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    ABSTRACT: Opinion statement Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a heterogeneous group of malignancies characterized by variable but most often indolent biologic behavior. Well-differentiated NETs can be broadly classified as either carcinoid or pancreatic NET. Although they have similar characteristics on routine histologic evaluation, the 2 tumor subtypes have different biology and respond differently to treatment, with most therapeutic agents demonstrating higher response rates in pancreatic NETs compared with carcinoid. Until recently, systemic treatment options for patients with advanced NETs were limited. However, improvements in our understanding of signaling pathways involved in the pathogenesis, growth, and spread of NETs have translated into an expansion of treatment options. Aberrant signaling through the mechanistic pathway of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has been implicated in neuroendocrine tumorigenesis. Additionally, altered expression of mTOR pathway components has been observed in NETs and has been associated with clinical outcomes. Targeting the mTOR pathway has emerged as an effective treatment strategy in the management of advanced NETs. In a randomized, placebo-controlled study of patients with advanced pancreatic NET, treatment with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus was associated with improved progression-free survival (PFS). Largely based upon these data, everolimus has been approved in the United States and Europe for the treatment of patients with advanced pancreatic NET. The activity of everolimus remains under investigation in patients with carcinoid tumors. In a randomized study of patients with advanced carcinoid tumors associated with carcinoid syndrome, the addition of everolimus to octreotide was associated with improved PFS compared with octreotide. However, the results did not meet the prespecified level of statistical significance based on central review of radiographic imaging. Results from a randomized study examining the efficacy of everolimus in patients with nonfunctional gastrointestinal and lung NETs are awaited. In addition, further investigation is needed to determine whether primary tumor site or other clinical and molecular factors can impact response to mTOR inhibition. Although everolimus can slow tumor progression, significant tumor reduction is rarely obtained. Targeting multiple signaling pathways is a treatment strategy that may provide better tumor control and overcome resistance mechanisms involved with targeting a single pathway. Results of ongoing and future studies will provide important information regarding the added benefit of combining mTOR inhibitors with other targeted agents, such as VEGF pathway inhibitors, and cytotoxic chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced NETs.
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    • "Par la suite, 9 % de réponses objectives et une survie sans progression de 9,7 mois ont été rapportées dans une étude de phase II évaluant l'évérolimus chez 115 patients ayant une TNE du pancréas en progression ou non [123]. Enfin, l'association évérolimus–octréotide retard a été étudiée dans deux études objectivant respectivement 27 et 4 % de réponses morphologiques dans 30 et 45 TNE du pancréas, en progression ou non, donnant une survie sans progression égale à 16 mois pour la deuxième étude [123] [124]. Plus récemment, une étude de phase III randomisée, en double aveugle, testant l'efficacité de l'évérolimus contre placebo dans des TNE du pancréas bien différenciées en progression a démontré un bénéfice statistiquement significatif en termes de survie sans progression dans le bras traité par évérolimus (11,4 mois) en comparaison du bras placebo (4,6 mois) [59]. "
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    • "A phase II trial among patients with progressive pancreatic NET disease showed promising results using everolimus or everolimus in combination with octreotide [35]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The mTOR inhibitor everolimus has shown promising results in some but not all neuroendocrine tumors. Therefore, early assessment of treatment response would be beneficial. In this study, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro treatment effect of everolimus in neuroendocrine tumors and evaluated the performance of 18F-FDG and the proliferation tracer 18F-FLT for treatment response assessment by PET imaging. The effect of everolimus on the human carcinoid cell line H727 was examined in vitro with the MTT assay and in vivo on H727 xenograft tumors. The mice were scanned at baseline with 18F-FDG or 18F-FLT and then treated with either placebo or everolimus (5 mg/kg daily) for 10 days. PET/CT scans were repeated at day 1,3 and 10. Everolimus showed significant inhibition of H727 cell proliferation in vitro at concentrations above 1 nM. In vivo tumor volumes measured relative to baseline were significantly lower in the everolimus group compared to the control group at day 3 (126±6% vs. 152±6%; p = 0.016), day 7 (164±7% vs. 226±13%; p<0.001) and at day 10 (194±10% vs. 281±18%; p<0.001). Uptake of 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT showed little differences between control and treatment groups, but individual mean uptake of 18F-FDG at day 3 correlated with tumor growth day 10 (r2 = 0.45; P = 0.034), 18F-FLT mean uptake at day 1 correlated with tumor growth day 7 (r2 = 0.63; P = 0.019) and at day 3 18F-FLT correlated with tumor growth day 7 (r2 = 0.87; P<0.001) and day 10 (r2 = 0.58; P = 0.027). Everolimus was effective in vitro and in vivo in human xenografts lung carcinoid NETs and especially early 18F-FLT uptake predicted subsequent tumor growth. We suggest that 18F-FLT PET can be used for tailoring therapy for neuroendocrine tumor patients through early identification of responders and non-responders.
    PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e91387. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0091387 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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