Complete transcriptome of the soybean root hair cell, a single-cell model, and its alteration in response to Bradyrhizobium japonicum infection.

Division of Plant Sciences, National Center for Soybean Biotechnology, CS Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211, USA.
Plant physiology (Impact Factor: 7.39). 11/2009; 152(2):541-52. DOI: 10.1104/pp.109.148379
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Nodulation is the result of a mutualistic interaction between legumes and symbiotic soil bacteria (e.g. soybean [Glycine max] and Bradyrhizobium japonicum) initiated by the infection of plant root hair cells by the symbiont. Fewer than 20 plant genes involved in the nodulation process have been functionally characterized. Considering the complexity of the symbiosis, significantly more genes are likely involved. To identify genes involved in root hair cell infection, we performed a large-scale transcriptome analysis of B. japonicum-inoculated and mock-inoculated soybean root hairs using three different technologies: microarray hybridization, Illumina sequencing, and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Together, a total of 1,973 soybean genes were differentially expressed with high significance during root hair infection, including orthologs of previously characterized root hair infection-related genes such as NFR5 and NIN. The regulation of 60 genes was confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Our analysis also highlighted changes in the expression pattern of some homeologous and tandemly duplicated soybean genes, supporting their rapid specialization.

Download full-text


Available from: Osman Radwan, Jul 07, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nitrogen-fixing rhizobia colonize legume roots via plant-made intracellular infection threads. Genetics has identified some genes involved but has not provided sufficient detail to understand requirements for infection thread development. Therefore, we transcriptionally profiled Medicago truncatula root hairs prior to and during the initial stages of infection. This revealed changes in the responses to plant hormones, most notably auxin, strigolactone, gibberellic acid, and brassinosteroids. Several auxin responsive genes, including the ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana Auxin Response Factor 16, were induced at infection sites and in nodule primordia, and mutation of ARF16a reduced rhizobial infection. Associated with the induction of auxin signaling genes, there was increased expression of cell cycle genes including an A-type cyclin and a subunit of the anaphase promoting complex. There was also induction of several chalcone O-methyltransferases involved in the synthesis of an inducer of Sinorhizobium meliloti nod genes, as well as a gene associated with Nod factor degradation, suggesting both positive and negative feedback loops that control Nod factor levels during rhizobial infection. We conclude that the onset of infection is associated with reactivation of the cell cycle as well as increased expression of genes required for hormone and flavonoid biosynthesis and that the regulation of auxin signaling is necessary for initiation of rhizobial infection threads.
    The Plant Cell 12/2014; 26:4680-4701. DOI:10.1105/tpc.114.133496 · 9.58 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Soybean is a leading agronomic crop and contributes to food and agricultural security with expanding production areas in diverse regions around the world. Although soybean is challenged by several diseases and pests and progress has been made in understanding and managing some of these pathogens and pests, charcoal rot, incited by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina, has received little attention. M. phaseolina has a broad host range and is capable of attacking and infecting several groups of plant species, including soybean. Charcoal rot symptoms on soybean appear more commonly during hot and dry weather conditions, and are associated with drought stress. In recent years, it has become more important to develop management strategies to control charcoal rot in soybean fields. Understanding the genetics of this pathogen as well as its interactions with plant hosts will help in developing effective control and management strategies. The biology of M. phaseolina, its genetics, and plant–fungal relationships are reviewed herein. In addition, a discussion of potential opportunities utilizing modern tools to enhance genetic resistance against charcoal rot is also presented.
    Plant Molecular Biology Reporter 06/2014; 32(3). DOI:10.1007/s11105-013-0686-9 · 2.37 Impact Factor
  • Source