Reversible Surgical Model of Biliary Inflammation and Obstructive Jaundice in Mice
Department of Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, VA Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94121, USA.Journal of Surgical Research (Impact Factor: 1.94). 09/2009; 164(2):221-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.jss.2009.08.010
Common bile duct (CBD) ligation is used in animal models to induce biliary inflammation, fibrosis, and cholestatic liver injury, but results in a high early postoperative mortality rate, probably from traumatic pancreatitis. We modified the CBD ligation model in mice by placing a small metal clip across the lower end of the CBD. To reverse biliary obstruction, a suture was incorporated within the clip during its placement. The suture and clip were removed on postoperative d 5 or 10 for biliary decompression. After 5 d of biliary obstruction, the gallbladder showed an 8-fold increase in wall thickness and a 17-fold increase in tissue myeloperoxidase activity. Markedly elevated serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin indicated injury to the biliary epithelium and hepatocytes. Early postoperative (d 0-2) survival was 100% and later (d 3-5) survival was 85% (n=54 mice). We successfully reversed biliary obstruction in 20 mice (37%). Overall survival after reversal was 70%. In surviving mice, biliary decompression was complete, inflammation was reduced, and jaundice resolved. Histologic features confirmed reduced epithelial damage, edema, and neutrophil infiltration. Our technique minimized postoperative death, maintained an effective inflammatory response, and was easily reversible without requiring repeat laparotomy. This reversible model can be used to further define molecular mechanisms of biliary inflammation, fibrosis, and liver injury in genetically altered mice.
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ABSTRACT: Biodegradable isocyanate-functional adhesives based on poly(ethylene glycol)-adipic acid esters were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Two types of formulations, P2TT and P2MT, were developed by functionalization with 2,4-tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) or 4,4'-methylene-bis(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI), respectively, and branching with 1,1,1-trimethylolpropane (TMP). The biocompatibility of the synthesized adhesive formulations was evaluated as per ISO 10993. Cytotoxicity, systemic toxicity, pyrogenicity, genotoxicity (reverse mutation of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli), hemolysis, intracutaneous reactivity, and delayed-type hypersensitivity were evaluated. All formulations met the requirements of the conducted standard tests. The biological behavior and ability of the adhesive formulations to close an arteriotomy and withstand arterial pressure following partial approximation with a single suture were evaluated in a rat abdominal aorta model. Animals were evaluated at 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after surgery. Macroscopic and histopathologic evaluation of explanted arteries suggested that the P2TT formulation had better in vivo performance than the P2MT formulation. Additionally, the P2TT formulation resulted in less tissue reaction than P2MT formulation. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the potential of this new class of isocyanate-functional degradable adhesives for vascular applications.Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 10/2011; 99(1):27-35. DOI:10.1002/jbm.b.31868 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Liver fibrosis is defined as excessive extracellular matrix deposition and is based on complex interactions between matrix-producing hepatic stellate cells and an abundance of liver-resident and infiltrating cells. Investigation of these processes requires in vitro and in vivo experimental work in animals. However, the use of animals in translational research will be increasingly challenged, at least in countries of the European Union, because of the adoption of new animal welfare rules in 2013. These rules will create an urgent need for optimized standard operating procedures regarding animal experimentation and improved international communication in the liver fibrosis community. This review gives an update on current animal models, techniques and underlying pathomechanisms with the aim of fostering a critical discussion of the limitations and potential of up-to-date animal experimentation. We discuss potential complications in experimental liver fibrosis and provide examples of how the findings of studies in which these models are used can be translated to human disease and therapy. In this review, we want to motivate the international community to design more standardized animal models which might help to address the legally requested replacement, refinement and reduction of animals in fibrosis research.Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair 10/2013; 6(1):19. DOI:10.1186/1755-1536-6-19
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ABSTRACT: Liver dysfunction and cirrhosis affect vasculature in several organ systems and cause impairment of organ functions, thereby increasing morbidity and mortality. Establishment of a mouse model of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) would provide greater insights into the genetic basis of the disease. Our objectives were to establish a mouse model of lung injury after common bile duct ligation (CBDL) and to investigate pulmonary pathogenesis for application in future therapeutic approaches. Eight-week-old Balb/c mice were subjected to CBDL. Immunohistochemical analyses and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction were performed on pulmonary tissues. The presence of HPS markers was detected by western blot and microarray analyses. We observed extensive proliferation of CD31-positive pulmonary vascular endothelial cells at 2 weeks after CBDL and identified 10 upregulated and 9 down-regulated proteins that were associated with angiogenesis. TNF-α and MMP-9 were highly expressed at 3 weeks after CBDL and were less expressed in the lungs of the control group. We constructed a mouse lung injury model by using CBDL. Contrary to our expectation, lung pathology in our mouse model exhibited differences from that of rat models, and the mechanisms responsible for these differences are unknown. This phenomenon may be explained by contrasting processes related to TNF induction of angiogenic signaling pathways in the inflammatory phase. Thus, we suggest that our mouse model can be applied to pulmonary pathological analyses in the inflammatory phase, i.e., to systemic inflammatory response syndrome, acute lung injury, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e94550. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0094550 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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