CD8+ T cell adjuvant effects of Salmonella FliCd flagellin in live vaccine vectors or as purified protein.
ABSTRACT Salmonella flagellin, the flagellum structural subunit, has received particular interest as a vaccine adjuvant conferring enhanced immunogenity to soluble proteins or peptides, both for activation of antibody and cellular immune responses. In the present study, we evaluated the Salmonella enterica FliCd flagellin as a T cell vaccine adjuvant using as model the 9-mer (SYVPSAEQI) synthetic H2(d)-restricted CD8(+) T cell-specific epitope (CS(280-288)) derived from the Plasmodium yoelii circumsporozoite (CS) protein. The FliCd adjuvant effects were determined under two different conditions: (i) as recombinant flagella, expressed by orally delivered live S. Dublin vaccine strains expressing the target CS(280-288) peptide fused at the central hypervariable domain, and (ii) as purified protein in acellular vaccines in which flagellin was administered to mice either as a recombinant protein fused or admixed with the target CS(280-288) peptide. The results showed that CS(280-288)-specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells were primed when BALB/c mice were orally inoculated with the expressing the CS(280-288) epitope S. Dublin vaccine strain. In contrast, mice immunized with purified FliCd admixed with the CS(280-288) peptide and, to a lesser extent, fused with the target peptide developed specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T cell responses without the need of a heterologous booster immunization. The CD8(+) T cell adjuvant effects of flagellin, either fused or not with the target peptide, correlated with the in vivo activation of CD11c(+) dendritic cells. Taken together, the present results demonstrate that Salmonella flagellins are flexible adjuvant and induce adaptative immune responses when administered by different routes or vaccine formulations.
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ABSTRACT: This study investigated the immune response of broiler chickens with oral treatment of a Lactobacillus spp. pool (PL) associated with microencapsulated recombinant proteins flagellin (FliC) and the subunit B of cholera toxin (CTB). Immune responses were evaluated by measuring IgA from intestinal fluid, serum IgY, and immunostaining of CD8(+) T lymphocytes present in the cecum. The evaluations were performed on d 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 posttreatment. A significant increase (P < 0.05) was observed in IgA levels in all immunized groups, especially 3 wk after immunization. Treatments 2 (recombinant CTB) and 3 (recombinant FliC+CTB) showed the highest concentrations. Similarly, serum concentrations IgY (μg/mL) increased along the experiment, and the means for treatments 2 and 3 showed significant differences (P < 0.05) compared with controls, reaching concentrations of 533 and 540 μg/mL, respectively. The number of CD8(+) T lymphocytes in all treatments greatly differed (P < 0.05) compared with the negative control at 21 d posttreatment. However, only treatment 2 (recombinant CTB), 4 (PL), and 5 (recombinant FliC+ recombinant CTB + PL) remained significantly (P < 0.05) different from the control at 28 d posttreatment. Thus, it is concluded that the microencapsulated recombinant proteins administered orally to broiler chickens are capable of stimulating humoral and cellular immune response, and the combinations of these antigens with Lactobacillus spp. can influence the population of CD8(+) T cells residing in the cecum.Poultry Science 01/2014; 93(1):39-45. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Traditional vaccines, based on the administration of killed or attenuated microorganisms, have proven to be among the most effective methods for disease prevention. Safety issues related to administering these complex mixtures, however, prevent their universal application. Through identification of the microbial components responsible for protective immunity, vaccine formulations can be simplified, enabling molecular-level vaccine characterization, improved safety profiles, prospects to develop new high-priority vaccines (e.g. for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria), and the opportunity for extensive vaccine component optimization. This subunit approach, however, comes at the expense of decreased immunity, requiring the addition of immunostimulatory agents (adjuvants). As few adjuvants are currently used in licensed vaccines, adjuvant development represents an exciting area for medicinal chemists to play a role in the future of vaccine development. In addition, immune responses can be further customized though optimization of delivery systems, tuning the size of particulate vaccines, targeting specific cells of the immune system (e.g. dendritic cells), and adding components to aid vaccine efficacy in whole immunized populations (e.g. promiscuous T-helper epitopes). Herein we review the current state of the art and future direction in subunit vaccine development, with a focus on the described components and their potential to steer the immune response toward a desired response.ChemMedChem 01/2013; · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Native type I heat-labile toxins (LTs) produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains exert strong adjuvant effects on both antibody and T cell responses to soluble and particulate antigens following co-administration via mucosal routes. However, inherent enterotoxicity and neurotoxicity (following intra-nasal delivery) had reduced the interest in the use of these toxins as mucosal adjuvants. LTs can also behave as powerful and safe adjuvants following delivery via parenteral routes, particularly for activation of cytotoxic lymphocytes. In the present study, we evaluated the adjuvant effects of a new natural LT polymorphic form (LT2), after delivery via intradermal (i.d.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) routes, with regard to both antibody and T cell responses. A recombinant HIV-1 p24 protein was employed as a model antigen for determination of antigen-specific immune responses while the reference LT (LT1), produced by the ETEC H10407 strain, and a non-toxigenic LT form (LTK63) were employed as previously characterized LT types. LT-treated mice submitted to a four dose-base immunization regimen elicited similar p24-specific serum IgG responses and CD4(+) T cell activation. Nonetheless, mice immunized with LT1 or LT2 induced higher numbers of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells and in vivo cytotoxic responses compared to mice immunized with the non-toxic LT derivative. These effects were correlated with stronger activation of local dendritic cell populations. In addition, mice immunized with LT1 and LT2, but not with LTK63, via s.c. or i.d. routes developed local inflammatory reactions. Altogether, the present results confirmed that the two most prevalent natural polymorphic LT variants (LT1 or LT2) display similar and strong adjuvant effects for subunit vaccines administered via i.d. or s.c. routes.Frontiers in Immunology 01/2014; 4:487.