Therapeutic angiogenesis in diabetic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice using bone marrow cells, functional hemangioblasts and metabolic intervention.
ABSTRACT Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a major health problem especially when associated to concomitant diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Hyperglycemia with an overwhelming generation of oxygen radicals and formation of glycation end-products exacerbates oxidation-sensitive mechanisms activated by tissue ischemia. Administration of autologous bone marrow cells (BMC) is an increasing notable intervention to induce therapeutic angiogenesis, ameliorated by metabolic intervention (MT). Recently, hemangioblasts (HS) with functional properties were isolated.
The effects of integrate regimen with intravenous BMC, HS, and MT (1.0% vitamin E, 0.05% vitamin C, and 6% l-arginine) were examined in the ischemic hindlimb of ApoE(-/-) diabetic and non-diabetic. Blood flow ratio was monitored by use of a laser Doppler blood flowmeter. Capillary density was determined in sections of the adductor and semimembranous muscles with antibody against CD31.
BMC or HS alone, and BMC plus HS increased blood flow and capillary densities and decreased interstitial fibrosis. These effects were amplified by additional MT, at least in part, through the nitric oxide pathway, reduction of systemic oxidative stress and macrophage infiltration. Investigation of molecular mechanisms in bone marrow (BM)-derived progenitor cells from mice revealed that BMC therapy and, more consistently, in combination with MT ameliorated functional activity via decreased cellular senescence and increased telomerase and chemokine CXCR4 activities. Telomerase activity was also increased by HS alone or HS+MT and, more consistently, by BMC+HS alone or in combination with MT.
Intravenous autologous BMC and HS intervention together with MT increased therapeutic angiogenesis in the ApoE(-/-) diabetic mouse hindlimb.
- SourceAvailable from: Louis Messina[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) derived from endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is a potent vasodilator and signaling molecule that plays essential roles in neovascularization. During limb ischemia, decreased NO bioavailability occurs secondary to increased oxidant stress, decreased l-arginine and tetrahydrobiopterin. This study tested the hypothesis that dietary cosupplementation with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), l-arginine and vitamin C acts synergistically to decrease oxidant stress, increase NO and thereby increase blood flow recovery after hindlimb ischemia. Rats were fed normal chow, chow supplemented with BH4 or l-arginine (alone or in combination) or chow supplemented with BH4 + l-arginine + vitamin C for 1 wk before induction of hindlimb ischemia. In the is-chemic hindlimb, cosupplementation with BH4 + l-arginine resulted in greater eNOS and phospho-eNOS (P-eNOS) expression, Ca(2+)-dependent NOS activity and NO concentration in the ischemic calf region (gastrocnemius), as well as greater NO concentration in the region of collateral arteries (gracilis). Rats receiving cosupplementation of BH4 + l-arginine led to greater recovery of foot perfusion and greater collateral enlargement than did rats receiving either agent separately. The addition of vitamin C to the BH4 + l-arginine regimen further increased these dependent variables. In addition, rats given all three supplements showed significantly less Ca(2+)-independent activity, less nitrotyrosine accumulation, greater glutathione (GSH)-to-glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratio and less gastrocnemius muscle necrosis, on both macroscopic and microscopic levels. In conclusion, co-supplementation with BH4 + l-arginine + vitamin C significantly increased blood flow recovery after hindlimb ischemia by reducing oxidant stress, increasing NO bioavailability, enlarging collateral arteries and reducing muscle necrosis. Oral cosupplementation of BH4, l-arginine and vitamin C holds promise as a biological therapy to induce collateral artery enlargement.Molecular Medicine 01/2012; 18:1221-30. · 4.47 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Reduced numbers and activity of circulating progenitor cells are associated with aging and have been linked with coronary artery disease. To determine the impact of aging and atherosclerotic disease on the chemotaxic activity of bone marrow derived cells (BMCs), we examined CXCR4 surface expression on BMCs from aged and atherosclerotic mice. CXCR4 expression and cellular mobility were compared between BMCs of young (6-week old) ApoE null mice (ApoE(-/-)) and aged ApoE(-/-) mice that had been fed with a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet for 6-months. Age and atherosclerosis correlated with significantly lower surface expression of CXCR4 that was less inducible by calcium. The impaired calcium response was associated with defective calcium influx and was partially recovered by treatment with the calcium ionophore ionomycin. ApoE(-/-) mice fed high fat diet for 6-months had defective CXCR4 expression and SDF-1 regulation that is equivalent to that of 24-month old wild type mice. BMCs from aged, atherogenic ApoE(-/-) mice also displayed defective homing to SDF-1, and the animals had lower serum and bone marrow levels of SDF-1. Evolution of atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice is paralleled by progressive loss of mobility of BMCs with reductions of CXCR4 expression, and reduced levels of SDF-1 in both serum and bone marrow. These changes mute the homing capability of BMCs and may contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis in this model.Atherosclerosis 08/2011; 219(1):92-9. · 3.71 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Failure of revascularization is known to be the major reason for the poor outcome of pancreatic islet transplantation. In this study, we analyzed whether pseudoislets composed of islet cells and bone marrow cells can improve vascularization and function of islet transplants. Pancreatic islets isolated from Syrian golden hamsters were dispersed into single cells for the generation of pseudoislets containing 4×10(3) cells. To create bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets 2×10(3) islet cells were co-cultured with 2×10(3) bone marrow cells. Pseudoislets and bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets were transplanted syngeneically into skinfold chambers to study graft vascularization by intravital fluorescence microscopy. Native islet transplants served as controls. Bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets showed a significantly improved vascularization compared to native islets and pseudoislets. Moreover, bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets but not pseudoislets normalized blood glucose levels after transplantation of 1000 islet equivalents under the kidney capsule of streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals, although the bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets contained only 50% of islet cells compared to pseudoislets and native islets. Fluorescence microscopy of bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets composed of bone marrow cells from GFP-expressing mice showed a distinct fraction of cells expressing both GFP and insulin, indicating a differentiation of bone marrow-derived cells to an insulin-producing cell-type. Thus, enrichment of pseudoislets by bone marrow cells enhances vascularization after transplantation and increases the amount of insulin-producing tissue. Accordingly, bone marrow cell-enriched pseudoislets may represent a novel approach to increase the success rate of islet transplantation.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e69975. · 3.73 Impact Factor