Therapeutic angiogenesis in diabetic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice using bone marrow cells, functional hemangioblasts and metabolic intervention.
ABSTRACT Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a major health problem especially when associated to concomitant diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Hyperglycemia with an overwhelming generation of oxygen radicals and formation of glycation end-products exacerbates oxidation-sensitive mechanisms activated by tissue ischemia. Administration of autologous bone marrow cells (BMC) is an increasing notable intervention to induce therapeutic angiogenesis, ameliorated by metabolic intervention (MT). Recently, hemangioblasts (HS) with functional properties were isolated.
The effects of integrate regimen with intravenous BMC, HS, and MT (1.0% vitamin E, 0.05% vitamin C, and 6% l-arginine) were examined in the ischemic hindlimb of ApoE(-/-) diabetic and non-diabetic. Blood flow ratio was monitored by use of a laser Doppler blood flowmeter. Capillary density was determined in sections of the adductor and semimembranous muscles with antibody against CD31.
BMC or HS alone, and BMC plus HS increased blood flow and capillary densities and decreased interstitial fibrosis. These effects were amplified by additional MT, at least in part, through the nitric oxide pathway, reduction of systemic oxidative stress and macrophage infiltration. Investigation of molecular mechanisms in bone marrow (BM)-derived progenitor cells from mice revealed that BMC therapy and, more consistently, in combination with MT ameliorated functional activity via decreased cellular senescence and increased telomerase and chemokine CXCR4 activities. Telomerase activity was also increased by HS alone or HS+MT and, more consistently, by BMC+HS alone or in combination with MT.
Intravenous autologous BMC and HS intervention together with MT increased therapeutic angiogenesis in the ApoE(-/-) diabetic mouse hindlimb.
Article: Tetrahydrobiopterin, -arginine and vitamin C act synergistically to decrease oxidant stress and increase nitric oxide that increases blood flow recovery after hindlimb ischemia in the rat.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) derived from endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is a potent vasodilator and signaling molecule that plays essential roles in neovascularization. During limb ischemia, decreased NO bioavailability occurs secondary to increased oxidant stress, decreased l-arginine and tetrahydrobiopterin. This study tested the hypothesis that dietary cosupplementation with tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), l-arginine and vitamin C acts synergistically to decrease oxidant stress, increase NO and thereby increase blood flow recovery after hindlimb ischemia. Rats were fed normal chow, chow supplemented with BH4 or l-arginine (alone or in combination) or chow supplemented with BH4 + l-arginine + vitamin C for 1 wk before induction of hindlimb ischemia. In the is-chemic hindlimb, cosupplementation with BH4 + l-arginine resulted in greater eNOS and phospho-eNOS (P-eNOS) expression, Ca(2+)-dependent NOS activity and NO concentration in the ischemic calf region (gastrocnemius), as well as greater NO concentration in the region of collateral arteries (gracilis). Rats receiving cosupplementation of BH4 + l-arginine led to greater recovery of foot perfusion and greater collateral enlargement than did rats receiving either agent separately. The addition of vitamin C to the BH4 + l-arginine regimen further increased these dependent variables. In addition, rats given all three supplements showed significantly less Ca(2+)-independent activity, less nitrotyrosine accumulation, greater glutathione (GSH)-to-glutathione disulfide (GSSG) ratio and less gastrocnemius muscle necrosis, on both macroscopic and microscopic levels. In conclusion, co-supplementation with BH4 + l-arginine + vitamin C significantly increased blood flow recovery after hindlimb ischemia by reducing oxidant stress, increasing NO bioavailability, enlarging collateral arteries and reducing muscle necrosis. Oral cosupplementation of BH4, l-arginine and vitamin C holds promise as a biological therapy to induce collateral artery enlargement.Molecular Medicine 01/2012; 18:1221-30. · 3.76 Impact Factor