Infectious diseases are prevalent in the developing world and are one of the developing world's major sources of morbidity and mortality. While infectious diseases can initiate in a localized region, they can spread rapidly at any moment due to the ease of traveling from one part of the world to the next. This could lead to a global pandemic. One key to preventing this spread is the development of diagnostics that can quickly identify the infectious agent so that one can properly treat or in some severe cases, quarantine a patient. There have been major advances in diagnostic technologies but infectious disease diagnostics are still based on 50-year technologies that are limited by speed of analysis, need for skilled workers, poor detection threshold and inability to detect multiple strains of infectious agents. Here, we describe advances in nanotechnology and microtechnology diagnostics for infectious diseases. In these diagnostic schemes, the nanomaterials are used as labels or barcodes while microfluidic systems are used to automate the sample preparation and the assays. We describe the current state of the field and the challenges.
"In the latter, hybridisation of Au-nanoprobes to the target sequence will prevent the non-cross-linking aggregation induced by increasing ionic strength (Figure 1; Sato et al., 2003; Baptista et al., 2005). Thus, modulation of AuNP or Au-nanoprobe inter-particle distance allows control over their corresponding aggregation and dispersion levels providing visual detection for a wide range of biological entities (Hauck et al., 2010; Ngo et al., 2011). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increasing levels of drug resistance are one of biggest threats to overcome microbial infection. The ability to rapidly and accurately detect a given pathogen and its drug resistance profile is essential for the appropriate treatment of patients and for preventing further spread of drug-resistant strains. The predictive and informative value of these molecular markers needs to be translated into robust surveillance tools that correlate to the target and extent of resistance, monitor multiresistance and provide real time assessment at point-of-need. Rapid molecular assays for the detection of drug-resistance signatures in clinical specimens are based on the detection of specific nucleotide sequences and/or mutations within pre-selected biomarkers in the genome, indicative of the presence of the pathogen and/or associated with drug resistance. DNA and/or RNA based assays offer advantages over phenotypic assays, such as specificity and time from collection to result. Nanotechnology has provided new and robust tools for the detection of pathogens and more crucially to the fast and sensitive characterisation of molecular signatures of drug resistance. Amongst the plethora of nanotechnology based approaches, gold nanoparticles have prompt for the development of new strategies and platforms capable to provide valuable data at point-of-need with increased versatility but reduced costs. Gold nanoparticles, due to their unique spectral, optical and electrochemical properties, are one of the most widely used nanotechnology systems for molecular diagnostics. This review will focus on the use of gold nanoparticles for screening molecular signatures of drug resistance that have been reported thus far, and provide a critical evaluation of current and future developments of these technologies assisting pathogen identification and characterisation.
Frontiers in Microbiology 08/2014; 5:455. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00455 · 3.99 Impact Factor
"The reasons behind most deaths today are either late diagnosis, inability to diagnose the main reason or location of disease or misinterpretation of data. We do hope nanotechnology, for instance nanites, will one day be able to scurry throughout our bodies via the circulatory system (traveling through our blood) and monitor every single vital sign that exists (141), for example, whether there are any broken bones, torn muscle tissue, irregularities, screen metabolism levels, observe cholesterol levels, monitor hormone levels, make sure that the organs are functioning properly, and any other requirement for a healthy body. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among the various applications of nano-biotechnology, healthcare is considered one of the most significant domains. For that possibility to synthesize various kind of nanoparticles (NPs) and the ever-increasing ability to control their size as well as structure, to improve surface characteristics and binding NPs with other desired curing agents has played an important role. In this paper, a brief sketch of various kinds of nanomaterials and their biomedical applications is given. Despite claims of bio-nanotechnology about to touch all areas of medical science, information pertaining to the role of nanotechnology for the betterment of reproductive healthcare is indeed limited. Therefore, the various achievements of nano-biotechnology for healthcare in general have been illustrated while giving special insight into the role of nano-biotechnology for the future of reproductive healthcare betterment as well as current achievements of nanoscience and nanotechnology in this arena.
"Plasmodium (P.) falciparum, P. vivax, P. Malariae, P. ovale and P. knowlesi, P. falciparum is the most important parasite causing morbidity and mortality (Wongsrichanalai et al., 2007). Although various antimalarial drugs are commercially available, the drug resistance still becomes a major concern due to the indiscriminate dispensing of the most effective drug and the parasite diagnosis (Hauck et al., 2010). The microscopic examination of stained blood smear is a high sensitive and specific technique which provides a clear identification of parasite stages, i.e. ring, trophozoite, schizont and gametocyte. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polystyrene (PS) nanoparticle (NP) copolymerized with acrylic acid (AA) and coloured monomer, i.e. 2,3,6,7-tetra(2,2'-bithiophene)-1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic-N,N'-di(2-methylallyl)-bisimide (ALN8T), was synthesized via the miniemulsion polymerization. Before applying for malaria antigen detection, the blue NP was conjugated with human polyclonal malaria IgG antibody (Ab) specific to Plasmodium falciparum. For the conjugation, three methods, i.e. physical adsorption, covalent coupling and affinity binding via streptavidin (SA) and biotin interaction, were employed. The optimum ratio of Ab to NPs used in each immobilization procedure and the latex agglutination test based on the reaction between Ab conjugated NPs and malaria patient plasma were investigated. All Ab-latex conjugates provided the high sensitivity for the detection of P. falciparum malaria plasma. The highest specificity to P. falciparum was obtained from using Ab-NPs conjugated via the SA-biotin interaction.
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