Article

Nanotechnology diagnostics for infectious diseases prevalent in developing countries.

Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
Advanced drug delivery reviews (Impact Factor: 11.96). 11/2009; 62(4-5):438-48. DOI: 10.1016/j.addr.2009.11.015
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Infectious diseases are prevalent in the developing world and are one of the developing world's major sources of morbidity and mortality. While infectious diseases can initiate in a localized region, they can spread rapidly at any moment due to the ease of traveling from one part of the world to the next. This could lead to a global pandemic. One key to preventing this spread is the development of diagnostics that can quickly identify the infectious agent so that one can properly treat or in some severe cases, quarantine a patient. There have been major advances in diagnostic technologies but infectious disease diagnostics are still based on 50-year technologies that are limited by speed of analysis, need for skilled workers, poor detection threshold and inability to detect multiple strains of infectious agents. Here, we describe advances in nanotechnology and microtechnology diagnostics for infectious diseases. In these diagnostic schemes, the nanomaterials are used as labels or barcodes while microfluidic systems are used to automate the sample preparation and the assays. We describe the current state of the field and the challenges.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
186 Views
  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The increasing levels of drug resistance are one of biggest threats to overcome microbial infection. The ability to rapidly and accurately detect a given pathogen and its drug resistance profile is essential for the appropriate treatment of patients and for preventing further spread of drug-resistant strains. The predictive and informative value of these molecular markers needs to be translated into robust surveillance tools that correlate to the target and extent of resistance, monitor multiresistance and provide real time assessment at point-of-need. Rapid molecular assays for the detection of drug-resistance signatures in clinical specimens are based on the detection of specific nucleotide sequences and/or mutations within pre-selected biomarkers in the genome, indicative of the presence of the pathogen and/or associated with drug resistance. DNA and/or RNA based assays offer advantages over phenotypic assays, such as specificity and time from collection to result. Nanotechnology has provided new and robust tools for the detection of pathogens and more crucially to the fast and sensitive characterisation of molecular signatures of drug resistance. Amongst the plethora of nanotechnology based approaches, gold nanoparticles have prompt for the development of new strategies and platforms capable to provide valuable data at point-of-need with increased versatility but reduced costs. Gold nanoparticles, due to their unique spectral, optical and electrochemical properties, are one of the most widely used nanotechnology systems for molecular diagnostics. This review will focus on the use of gold nanoparticles for screening molecular signatures of drug resistance that have been reported thus far, and provide a critical evaluation of current and future developments of these technologies assisting pathogen identification and characterisation.
    Frontiers in Microbiology 08/2014; 5:455. · 3.94 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nanoparticles mediated vaccine delivery is an emerging technology and considered as better adjuvant for delivering vaccines when compared to conventional delivery system. The purpose of this delivery system is to provide simple stable formulation that elicits lifelong immunity preferably with single shot. In line to develop the biodegradable polymer vaccine delivery system it is necessary to understand about the nature of polymer, type of antigen to be encapsulated, broad idea about immunological sketch. In this review, we attempt to provide an overview about the nano particle vaccine delivery system and interaction between nano particle and the immune system.
    Current pharmaceutical biotechnology 03/2014; 14(15):1242-1249. · 3.40 Impact Factor