Nanotechnology diagnostics for infectious diseases prevalent in developing countries.
ABSTRACT Infectious diseases are prevalent in the developing world and are one of the developing world's major sources of morbidity and mortality. While infectious diseases can initiate in a localized region, they can spread rapidly at any moment due to the ease of traveling from one part of the world to the next. This could lead to a global pandemic. One key to preventing this spread is the development of diagnostics that can quickly identify the infectious agent so that one can properly treat or in some severe cases, quarantine a patient. There have been major advances in diagnostic technologies but infectious disease diagnostics are still based on 50-year technologies that are limited by speed of analysis, need for skilled workers, poor detection threshold and inability to detect multiple strains of infectious agents. Here, we describe advances in nanotechnology and microtechnology diagnostics for infectious diseases. In these diagnostic schemes, the nanomaterials are used as labels or barcodes while microfluidic systems are used to automate the sample preparation and the assays. We describe the current state of the field and the challenges.
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ABSTRACT: Polystyrene (PS) nanoparticle (NP) copolymerized with acrylic acid (AA) and coloured monomer, i.e. 2,3,6,7-tetra(2,2'-bithiophene)-1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic-N,N'-di(2-methylallyl)-bisimide (ALN8T), was synthesized via the miniemulsion polymerization. Before applying for malaria antigen detection, the blue NP was conjugated with human polyclonal malaria IgG antibody (Ab) specific to Plasmodium falciparum. For the conjugation, three methods, i.e. physical adsorption, covalent coupling and affinity binding via streptavidin (SA) and biotin interaction, were employed. The optimum ratio of Ab to NPs used in each immobilization procedure and the latex agglutination test based on the reaction between Ab conjugated NPs and malaria patient plasma were investigated. All Ab-latex conjugates provided the high sensitivity for the detection of P. falciparum malaria plasma. The highest specificity to P. falciparum was obtained from using Ab-NPs conjugated via the SA-biotin interaction.Microbial Biotechnology 01/2013; 6(4). DOI:10.1111/1751-7915.12021 · 3.21 Impact Factor
- Advanced drug delivery reviews 11/2009; 62(4-5):375-7. DOI:10.1016/j.addr.2009.11.010 · 12.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Infectious diseases still plague much of the developing world. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV is critical for improved control and management allowing for targeted and effective treatment. The Whitesides Research Group led by George Whitesides, the Woodford L. and Ann A. Flowers University Professor at Harvard, has developed a low-cost paper based diagnostic test that follows the principles of microfludics using paper’s inherent channels and natural capillary action. The first application that the Whitesides paper diagnostic test will perform is liver toxicity screening. The printing method for these diagnostic tests will model the newspaper press print format for efficient and speedy production. The Whitesides Group intends the test results to be analyzed using telemedicine. Camera phones will transmit images of the test to a lab where a doctor or a computer can make a diagnosis. The key area that has not yet been explicitly defined is the method of packaging, distribution, and portability of the paper diagnostic test squares. The proposed paper diagnostic dispenser will make the tests portable which will increase access to diagnostic tools in the developing world. Heath care volunteers will be able to carry the tests in a simple container and dispense test squares as needed. This device increases the mobility of health care workers, requires little to no training to use, and facilitates the decentralization of health care services in developing countries.