Hippocampal damage after intra-amygdala kainic acid-induced status epilepticus and seizure preconditioning-mediated neuroprotection in SJL mice.
ABSTRACT Exposure of the brain to a stressful stimulus that is sub-threshold for permanent injury can temporarily protect against cell death during a subsequent and otherwise damaging insult. One or more brief, non-harmful seizure episode(s) (seizure preconditioning) can dramatically reduce hippocampal damage when given prior to status epilepticus (epileptic tolerance). We recently reported that status epilepticus-induced hippocampal damage in C57BL/6 mice could be reduced by approximately 50% when preceded 24h earlier by a brief, non-injurious generalized seizure induced by 15mg/kg systemic kainic acid (KA). Since other mouse strains might display different vulnerability to either seizure preconditioning or status epilepticus, we investigated whether epileptic tolerance could be acquired in another strain. SJL mice, reported to display greater seizure sensitivity to systemic KA, received intra-amygdala microinjection of KA to trigger status epilepticus. Intracerebral recordings confirmed evoked seizures involved the ipsilateral hippocampus. Status epilepticus produced hippocampal damage which mainly affected the ipsilateral CA3 and hilus; a pattern similar to C57BL/6 mice. The damage extended through the full rostro-caudal extent of the hippocampal formation. Seizure preconditioning using 20mg/kg systemic KA, but not 15mg/kg, significantly reduced hippocampal damage after status epilepticus by 37% in the dorsal hippocampus and by 65% in the ventral hippocampus. These studies suggest status epilepticus induced by intra-amygdala KA in SJL mice models aspects of the pathophysiology of human mesial temporal sclerosis. Moreover, seizure preconditioning effectively produces neuroprotection in SJL mice, further establishing epileptic tolerance as a conserved endogenous neuroprotection paradigm.
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ABSTRACT: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have increased risk of cardiovascular disease to which co-morbidity and associated conventional risk factors contribute. We hypothesised that arterial stiffness (AS) and endothelial dysfunction (ED), as surrogates of cardiovascular risk, would worsen as renal function declined even in patients without co-morbidity and that this would relate to emerging cardiovascular risk factors. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), as a measure of AS, and flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery, as a measure of ED, were assessed in CKD patients without established cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus. PWV increased linearly as renal function declined (r(2) = 0.08, p < 0.01) whereas FMD was reduced only in patients with advanced kidney disease. In multivariable analysis, blood pressure was the major determinant of PWV and FMD. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and asymmetric dimethylarginine, and isoprostanes and endothelin-1, were independent predictors of PWV and FMD, respectively. However, renal function did not independently predict either AS or ED. These findings suggest that declining renal function, in the absence of significant co-morbidity, is associated with progressive arterial stiffness, but only patients close to dialysis exhibit endothelial dysfunction. Whilst blood pressure remains the major determinant of PWV and FMD, inflammation, oxidative stress and endothelin-nitric oxide balance contribute to cardiovascular risk, in this non-comorbid cohort.Atherosclerosis 03/2011; 216(1):217-25. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Seizures have profound impact on synaptic function and plasticity. While kainic acid is a popular method to induce seizures and to potentially affect synaptic plasticity, it can also produce physiological-like oscillations and trigger some forms of long-term potentiation (LTP). Here, we examine whether induction of LTP is altered in hippocampal slices prepared from rats with different sensitivity to develop status epilepticus (SE) by systemic injection of kainic acid. Rats were treated with multiple low doses of kainic acid (5 mg/kg; i.p.) to develop SE in a majority of animals (72-85% rats). A group of rats were resistant to develop SE (15-28%) after several accumulated doses. Animals were subsequently tested using chronic recordings and object recognition tasks before brain slices were prepared for histological studies and to examine basic features of hippocampal synaptic function and plasticity, including input/output curves, paired-pulse facilitation and theta-burst induced LTP. Consistent with previous reports in kindling and pilocapine models, LTP was reduced in rats that developed SE after kainic acid injection. These animals exhibited signs of hippocampal sclerosis and developed spontaneous seizures. In contrast, resistant rats did not become epileptic and had no signs of cell loss and mossy fiber sprouting. In slices from resistant rats, theta-burst stimulation induced LTP of higher magnitude when compared with control and epileptic rats. Variations on LTP magnitude correlate with animals' performance in a hippocampal-dependent spatial memory task. Our results suggest dissociable long-term effects of treatment with kainic acid on synaptic function and plasticity depending on its epileptogenic efficiency.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(10):e48128. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 14-3-3 proteins are ubiquitous molecular chaperones that are abundantly expressed in the brain where they regulate cell functions including metabolism, the cell cycle and apoptosis. Brain levels of several 14-3-3 isoforms are altered in diseases of the nervous system, including epilepsy. The 14-3-3 zeta (ζ) isoform has been linked to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function in neurons, with reduced levels provoking ER stress and increasing vulnerability to excitotoxic injury. Here we report that transgenic overexpression of 14-3-3ζ in mice results in selective changes to the unfolded protein response pathway in the hippocampus, including down-regulation of glucose-regulated proteins 78 and 94, activating transcription factors 4 and 6, and Xbp1 splicing. No differences were found between wild-type mice and transgenic mice for levels of other 14-3-3 isoforms or various other 14-3-3 binding proteins. 14-3-3ζ overexpressing mice were potently protected against cell death caused by intracerebroventricular injection of the ER stressor tunicamycin. 14-3-3ζ overexpressing mice were also potently protected against neuronal death caused by prolonged seizures. These studies demonstrate that increased 14-3-3ζ levels protect against ER stress and seizure-damage despite down-regulation of the unfolded protein response. Delivery of 14-3-3ζ may protect against pathologic changes resulting from prolonged or repeated seizures or where injuries provoke ER stress.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e54491. · 3.53 Impact Factor