Article

Altered PTEN expression; a diagnostic marker for differentiating normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic endometrium.

Department of Pathology, Mirza Koochak Khan Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Diagnostic Pathology (Impact Factor: 2.41). 11/2009; 4:41. DOI: 10.1186/1746-1596-4-41
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Different molecular alterations have been described in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EECA). Among them the most frequently altered is loss of the PTEN protein, a tumor suppressor gene. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression pattern of PTEN gene in normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic endometrium.
In a study in a referral gynecologic hospital in Tehran, Iran, immunohistochemical (IHC) evaluation of PTEN was performed on 87 consecutive specimens to the following three groups; group A- normal proliferative endometrium(n = 29); group B- hyperplastic endometrium [including simple hyperplasia without atypia(n = 21) and complex hyperplasia with atypia (n = 8)] and group C- EECA(n = 29). Immunostaining of cells was analyzed by arbitrary quantitative methods according to both slide's area staining and intensity of color reaction.
PTEN immunoreactivity was present in all normal proliferative endometrium, all simple hyperplasia, 75% of atypical complex hyperplasia and in 48% of EECA (P < 0.001). The intensity of PTEN reaction was significantly higher in group with proliferative endometrium than hyperplastic endometrium and EECA (P < 0.001).
PTEN expression was significantly higher in cyclical endometrium than in atypical hyperplasia and endometrioid carcinoma.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
148 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway, a common mechanism in all subtypes of endometrial cancers (endometrioid and non-endometrioid tumors), has important roles in contributing to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cell (CSC) features. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that concurrently affect multiple target genes, and regulate a wide range of genes involved in modulating EMT and CSC properties. Here we overview the recent advances revealing the impact of miRNAs on EMT and CSC phenotypes in tumors including endometrial cancer via regulating PI3K/AKT pathway. MiRNAs are crucial mediators of EMT and CSC through targeting PTEN-PI3K-AKT-mTOR axis. In endometrial cancer cells, miRNAs can activate or attenuate EMT and CSC by targeting PTEN and other EMT-associated genes, such as Twist1, ZEB1 and BMI-1. More detailed studies of miRNAs will deepen our understanding of the molecular basis underlying PI3K/AKT-induced endometrial cancer initiation and progression. Targeting key signaling components of PI3K/AKT pathway by restoring or inhibiting miRNA function holds promise as a potential therapeutic approach to suppress EMT and CSC in endometrial cancer.
    Journal of Translational Medicine 08/2014; 12(1):231. · 3.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although clinical trials of molecular therapies targeting critical biomarkers (mTOR, epidermal growth factor receptor/epidermal growth factor receptor 2, and vascular endothelial growth factor) in endometrial cancer show modest effects, there are still challenges that might remain regarding primary/acquired drug resistance and unexpected side effects on normal tissues. New studies that aim to target both genetic and epigenetic alterations (noncoding microRNA) underlying malignant properties of tumor cells and to specifically attack tumor cells using cell surface markers overexpressed in tumor tissue are emerging. More importantly, strategies that disrupt the cancer stem cell/epithelial-mesenchymal transition-dependent signals and reactivate antitumor immune responses would bring new hope for complete elimination of all cell compartments in endometrial cancer. We briefly review the current status of molecular therapies tested in clinical trials and mainly discuss the potential therapeutic candidates that are possibly used to develop more effective and specific therapies against endometrial cancer progression and metastasis.
    BioMed research international. 01/2013; 2013:130362.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The uterine endometrial polyp (EMP) has a potential risk of developing malignant tumors especially in postmenopausal women. These malignancies include endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (EIC). Patients and methods Eight patients with EIC in the EMP, who were postmenopausal with ages ranging from 49 to 76 years (av. 62), were cytologically reviewed in comparison with histological findings. RESULTS: The endometrial cytological findings were summarized as follows: mucous and watery diathesis as a background lacking or with little necrotic inflammatory changes; micropapillary cluster formation; abrupt transition between carcinoma cells and normal cells; nuclear enlargement; high N/C ratio; and single or a few prominent nucleoli. Histologically, one case had EIC alone in the EMP; three cases had EIC with stromal invasion confined to the EMP; and four cases had EIC in the atrophic endometrium in addition to EIC in the EMP. Seven patients have taken a disease-free course after surgical resection, but one patient died 44 months following the initial diagnosis because of the massive tumor extending over her peritoneal cavity. CONCLUSIONS: Endometrial cytology may be helpful for the detection of early endometrial adenocarcinomas with serous features including EIC. Some early stage endometrial adenocarcinomas represented by EIC exceptionally take an aggressive clinical course irrespective of a lack of extrauterine lesions. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1651876760876449.
    Diagnostic Pathology 02/2013; 8(1):25. · 2.41 Impact Factor

Preview (2 Sources)

Download
0 Downloads
Available from