Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of regional brain metabolite markers in FALS mice and the effects of dietary creatine supplementation.

A.A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Building 149, 13th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA.
European Journal of Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 3.67). 11/2009; 30(11):2143-50. DOI: 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2009.07015.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We investigated the effects of disease progression on brain regional neurochemistry in a mutant mouse model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS; the G93A model) using in vivo and in vitro magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). There were numerous changes in the brain spectra that were brain region dependent. At early time points starting around 80 days of age there were increases in brain glutamate. At later time points there were more extensive changes including decreased N-acetyl aspartate and glutamate and increased glutamine, taurine and myo-inositol. The effects of the disease were most severe in spinal cord followed by medulla and then sensorimotor cortex. There were no changes noted in cerebellum as a control region. The effects of creatine supplementation in the diet (2%) were measured in wild-type and FALS animals in medulla, cerebellum and cortex. The increase in brain creatine was largest in cerebellum (25%) followed by medulla (11%) and then cortex (4%), reflecting the ordering of creatine kinase activity. There was a protective effect of creatine on N-acetyl aspartate loss in the medulla at late stages. Creatine supplementation had a positive effect on weight retention, leading to a 13% increase in weight between 120 and 130 days. MRS shows promise in monitoring multiple facets of neuroprotective strategies in ALS and ALS models.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Evidence suggests that there are aberrations in the vitamin D-endocrine system in subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here, we review the relationship between vitamin D and ALS. Vitamin D deficiency was reported in patients with ALS. Dietary vitamin D3 supplementation improves functional capacity in the G93A transgenic mouse model of ALS. Genetic studies have provided an opportunity to identify the proteins that link vitamin D to ALS pathology, including major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, toll-like receptors, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, heme oxygenase-1, and calcium-binding proteins, as well as the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Vitamin D also exerts its effect on ALS through cell-signaling mechanisms, including glutamate, matrix metalloproteinases, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, prostaglandins, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide synthase. In conclusion, vitamin D may have a role in ALS. Further investigation of vitamin D in ALS patients is needed.
    Molecular Brain 04/2013; 6(1):16. DOI:10.1186/1756-6606-6-16 · 4.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neurotransmitters are chemical substances that, by definition, allow communication between neurons and permit most neuronal-glial interactions in the CNS. Approximately 80% of all neurons use glutamate, and almost all interneurons use GABA. A third neurotransmitter, NAAG, modulates glutamatergic neurotransmission. Concentration changes in these molecules due to defective synthetic machinery, receptor expression, or errors in their degradation and metabolism are accepted causes of several neurologic disorders. Knowledge of changes in neurotransmitter concentrations in the brain can add useful information in making a diagnosis, helping to pick the right drug of treatment, and monitoring patient response to drugs in a more objective manner. Recent advances in (1)H-MR spectroscopy hold promise in providing a more reliable in vivo detection of these neurotransmitters. In this article, we summarize the essential biology of 3 major neurotransmitters: glutamate, GABA, and NAAG. Finally we illustrate possible applications of (1)H-MR spectroscopy in neuroscience research.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 12/2011; 33(4):595-602. DOI:10.3174/ajnr.A2587 · 3.68 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Impairment of mitochondrial function might contribute to oxidative stress associated with neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Glutamate levels in tissues of ALS patients are sometimes altered. In neurons, mitochondrial metabolism of exogenous glutamine is mainly responsible for the net synthesis of glutamate, which is a neurotransmitter, but it is also necessary for the synthesis of glutathione, the main endogenous antioxidant. We investigated glutathione synthesis and glutamine/glutamate metabolism in a motor neuronal model of familial ALS. In standard culture conditions (with glutamine) or restricting glutamine or cystine, the level of glutathione was always lower in the cell line expressing the mutant (G93A) human Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (G93ASOD1) than in the line expressing wild-type SOD1. With glutamine the difference in glutathione was associated with a lower glutamate and impairment of the glutamine/glutamate metabolism as evidenced by lower glutaminase and cytosolic malate dehydrogenase activity. d-β-hydroxybutyrate, as an alternative to glutamine as energy substrate in addition to glucose, reversed the decreases of cytosolic malate dehydrogenase activity and glutamate and glutathione. However, in the G93ASOD1 cell line, in all culture conditions the expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase l protein, which down-regulates pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, was induced, together with an increase in lactate release in the medium. These findings suggest that the glutathione decrease associated with mutant SOD1 expression is due to mitochondrial dysfunction caused by the reduction of the flow of glucose-derived pyruvate through the TCA cycle; it implies altered glutamate metabolism and depends on the different mitochondrial energy substrates.
    Neurobiology of Disease 08/2011; 43(2):346-55. DOI:10.1016/j.nbd.2011.04.003 · 5.20 Impact Factor


Available from