The potential of cinnamon to reduce blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes

Faculty of Health & Human Sciences, Thames Valley University, Brentford, TW8 9 GA, UK.
Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism (Impact Factor: 6.36). 12/2009; 11(12):1100-13. DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2009.01094.x
Source: PubMed


Cinnamon has a long history as an antidiabetic spice, but trials involving cinnamon supplementation have produced contrasting results. The aim of this review was to examine the results of randomized controlled clinical trials of cinnamon and evaluate the therapeutic potential amongst patients with diabetes and insulin-resistant patients, particularly the ability to reduce blood glucose levels and inhibit protein glycation.
A systematic electronic literature search using the medical subject headings 'cinnamon' and 'blood glucose' was carried out to include randomized, placebo-controlled in vivo clinical trials using Cinnamomum verum or Cinnamomum cassia conducted between January 2003 and July 2008.
Five type 2 diabetic and three non-diabetic studies (total N = 311) were eligible. Two of the diabetic studies illustrated significant fasting blood glucose (FBG) reductions of 18-29% and 10.3% (p < 0.05), supported by one non-diabetic trial reporting an 8.4% FBG reduction (p < 0.01) vs. placebo, and another illustrating significant reductions in glucose response using oral glucose tolerance tests (p < 0.05). Three diabetic studies reported no significant results.
Whilst definitive conclusions cannot be drawn regarding the use of cinnamon as an antidiabetic therapy, it does possess antihyperglycaemic properties and potential to reduce postprandial blood glucose levels. Further research is required to confirm a possible correlation between baseline FBG and blood glucose reduction and to assess the potential to reduce pathogenic diabetic complications with cinnamon supplementation.

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Available from: Amalia Tsiami, Oct 07, 2015
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    • "JTW is a common remedy to treat insomnia caused by the imbalance between the heart and kidney. However, recent research has determined that Rhizoma Coptidis and Cortex Cinnamomi both exert beneficial effects in diabetes [14] [15] [16] [17] [18]. We have also demonstrated that JTW is more effective than its single components in the treatment of rat hyperglycemia [19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Jiao Tai Wan (JTW), a Chinese herbal formula containing Rhizoma Coptidis and Cortex Cinnamomi, has been used for diabetic treatment for many years. The aim of this study was to determine the main components in JTW and to investigate the effects of JTW on hepatic lipid accumulation in diabetic rats and humans. JTW extract was prepared and the main components were assayed by HPLC. An animal model of diabetes mellitus was established and JTW was administered intragastrically. In the clinical study, diabetic patients with poor glycemic control were treated with JTW. Blood glucose and lipid parameters, liver histology, hepatic triglyceride content and lipogenic gene expression were examined. Our data demonstrated that JTW significantly improved hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hepatic lipid accumulation in diabetic rats. This was accompanied by the down-regulation of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein expressions, and the up-regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and phosphorylated-ACC (pACC) protein expressions in the liver tissues. Diabetic patients also exhibited decreases in their hepatic triglyceride content. The results suggest that JTW attenuates hepatic lipid accumulation in diabetic rats and humans. These beneficial effects are possibly associated with the inhibition of lipogenic gene expression in the liver.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 11/2013; 2013(4):567045. DOI:10.1155/2013/567045 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    • "Furthermore, recent meta-analysis also demonstrated that cinnamon intake lowers FPG [18] [19]. We have already demonstrated the effect of cinnamon and its cellular mechanism on blood glucose and BP regulation in patients with T2DM [6] [20]. In a recent review, Qin et al [21] confirmed that cinnamon and components of cinnamon have been shown to have beneficial effects on virtually all of the factors associated with metabolic syndrome, including insulin sensitivity, glucose, lipids, antioxidants, inflammation, BP, and body weight. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To systematically review and evaluate the effect of short term administration of cinnamon on blood pressure regulation in pre and type 2 diabetes patients by performing a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials. Research Methods and Procedures: Medical literature for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of the effect of cinnamon on blood pressure was systematically searched; 3 original articles published from January 2000 to September 2012 were identified from the MEDLINE database and a hand search of the reference lists of the articles obtained through MEDLINE. The search terms included cinnamon or blood pressure or systolic blood pressure (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) or diabetes. A random effects model was used to calculate weighted mean difference and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: The pooled estimate of the effect of cinnamon intake on systolic and diastolic blood pressure demonstrated that the use of cinnamon significantly decreased SBP and DBP by 5.39 mmHg (95% CI: -6.89, -3.89) and 2.6 mmHg (95% CI: - 4.53, -0.66) respectively. Conclusion: Consumption of cinnamon (short term) is associated with notable reduction of SBP and DBP. Although cinnamon shows hopeful effects on blood pressure lowering potential, it would be premature to recommend cinnamon for blood pressure control, because of the limited number of studies available. Thus, undoubtedly a long term, adequately powered RCTs involving a larger number of patients is needed to appraise the clinical potential of cinnamon on blood pressure control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Key words: Blood pressure, Diabetes, Cinnamon, Blood glucose, randomized control trials.
    Nutrition 05/2013; · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    • "Due to its polyphenolic nature, cinnamon is thought to exhibit antioxidant properties [3,49] which may be anti-atherogenic. It is proposed that the impairments in blood vessel function following the ingestion of HF loads are perpetrated via an oxidative stress mechanism that can increase the unwanted consumption of NO and favor the formation of further ROS, such as peroxynitrite (ONOO-) [17-19,28,44]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cinnamon has been shown to delay gastric emptying of a high-carbohydrate meal and reduce postprandial glycemia in healthy adults. However, it is dietary fat which is implicated in the etiology and is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the effect of 3 g cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on GE, postprandial lipemic and glycemic responses, oxidative stress, arterial stiffness, as well as appetite sensations and subsequent food intake following a high-fat meal. A single-blind randomized crossover study assessed nine healthy, young subjects. GE rate of a high-fat meal supplemented with 3 g cinnamon or placebo was determined using the 13C octanoic acid breath test. Breath, blood samples and subjective appetite ratings were collected in the fasted and during the 360 min postprandial period, followed by an ad libitum buffet meal. Gastric emptying and 1-day fatty acid intake relationships were also examined. Cinnamon did not change gastric emptying parameters, postprandial triacylglycerol or glucose concentrations, oxidative stress, arterial function or appetite (p < 0.05). Strong relationships were evident (p < 0.05) between GE Thalf and 1-day palmitoleic acid (r = -0.78), eiconsenoic acid (r = -0.84) and total omega-3 intake (r = -0.72). The ingestion of 3 g cinnamon had no effect on GE, arterial stiffness and oxidative stress following a HF meal. 3 g cinnamon did not alter the postprandial response to a high-fat test meal. We find no evidence to support the use of 3 g cinnamon supplementation for the prevention or treatment of metabolic disease. Dietary fatty acid intake requires consideration in future gastrointestinal studies. Trial registration number: at NCT01350284.
    Cardiovascular Diabetology 09/2011; 10(1):78. DOI:10.1186/1475-2840-10-78 · 4.02 Impact Factor
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