Cul4A is an oncogene in malignant pleural mesothelioma

Thoracic Oncology Laboratory, Department of Surgery, Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94115, USA.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.7). 11/2009; 15(2):350-8. DOI: 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2009.00971.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cullin 4A (Cul4A) is important in cell survival, development, growth and the cell cycle, but its role in mesothelioma has not been studied. For the first time, we identified amplification of the Cul4A gene in four of five mesothelioma cell lines. Consistent with increased Cul4A gene copy number, we found that Cul4A protein was overexpressed in mesothelioma cells as well. Cul4A protein was also overexpressed in 64% of primary malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) tumours. Furthermore, knockdown of Cul4A with shRNA in mesothelioma cells resulted in up-regulation of p21 and p27 tumour suppressor proteins in a p53-independent manner in H290, H28 and MS-1 mesothelioma cell lines. Knockdown of Cul4A also resulted in G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and decreased colony formation in H290, H28 and MS-1 mesothelioma cell lines. Moreover, G0/G1 cell cycle arrest was partially reversed by siRNA down-regulation of p21 and/or p27 in Cul4A knockdown H290 cell line. In the contrary, overexpression of Cul4A resulted in down-regulation of p21 and p27 proteins and increased colony formation in H28 mesothelioma cell line. Both p21 and p27 showed faster degradation rates in Cul4A overexpressed H28 cell line and slower degradation rates in Cul4A knockdown H28 cell line. Our study indicates that Cul4A amplification and overexpression play an oncogenic role in the pathogenesis of mesothelioma. Thus, Cul4A may be a potential therapeutic target for MPM.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seizes control of cellular cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) to promote viral replication. HIV-1 Vpr and HIV-2/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Vpr and Vpx engage the cullin4 (CUL4)-containing ubiquitin ligase complex (CRL4) to cause polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of host proteins, including ones that block infection. HIV-1 Vpr engages CRL4 to trigger the degradation of uracil-N-glycosylase 2 (UNG2). Both HIV-1 Vpr and HIV-2/SIV Vpr tap CRL4 to initiate G(2) cell cycle arrest. HIV-2/SIV Vpx secures CRL4 to degrade the antiviral protein SAMHD1. CRL4 includes either cullin4A (CUL4A) or cullin4B (CUL4B) among its components. Whether Vpr or Vpx relies on CUL4A, CUL4B, or both to act through CRL4 is not known. Reported structural, phenotypic, and intracellular distribution differences between the two CUL4 types led us to hypothesize that Vpr and Vpx employ these in a function-specific manner. Here we determined CUL4 requirements for HIV-1 and HIV-2/SIV Vpr-mediated G(2) cell cycle arrest, HIV-1 Vpr-mediated UNG2 degradation, and HIV-2 Vpx-mediated SAMHD1 degradation. Surprisingly, CUL4A and CUL4B are exchangeable for CRL4-dependent Vpr and Vpx action, except in primary macrophages, where Vpx relies on both CUL4A and CUL4B for maximal SAMHD1 depletion. This work highlights the need to consider both CUL4 types for Vpr and Vpx functions and also shows that the intracellular distribution of CUL4A and CUL4B can vary by cell type.
    Journal of Virology 04/2014; 88(12). DOI:10.1128/JVI.00241-14 · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The CUL4A E3 ubiquitin ligase is involved in the regulation of many cellular processes and its amplification and/or overexpression has been observed in breast cancer. The 13q34 amplification, which is associated with the basal-like breast cancer subtype, has been proposed as one of the mechanism behind CUL4A up-regulation. However, the specific contribution of CUL4A to the biology of basal-like breast tumors has not yet been elucidated. In this work, by using cellular models of basal phenotype, we show the inhibitory effect of CUL4A silencing in the proliferation and growth of breast cancer cells both, in vitro and in vivo. We also demonstrate the transforming capacity of CUL4A exogenous overexpression in the 184B5 human mammary epithelial cells in vitro. Our results suggest a synergistic effect between CUL4A high levels and the activation of the RAS pathway in the tumorigenesis of basal-like breast cancer tumors. In addition, by using a proteomics approach we have defined novel candidate proteins and pathways that might mediate the oncogenic effect of CUL4A. In particular, we report a putative role of CUL4A in bypassing the immune system in breast cancer through the down-regulation of several molecules involved in the immune surveillance. These findings provide insight into the oncogenic properties of CUL4A in basal-like breast cancer and highlight the therapeutic opportunities to target CUL4A.
    Oncotarget 04/2014; 5(8):2330-43. · 6.63 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: CUL4A has been proposed as oncogene in several types of human cancer, but its clinical significance and functional role in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain unclear. Expression level of CUL4A was examined by RT-PCR and Western blot. Forced expression of CUL4A was mediated by retroviruses, and CUL4A silencing by shRNAs expressing lentiviruses. Growth capacity of lung cancer cells was measured by MTT in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo, respectively. We found that CUL4A was highly expressed in human lung cancer tissues and lung cancer cell lines, and this elevated expression positively correlated with disease progression and prognosis. Overexpression of CUL4A in human lung cancer cell lines increased cell proliferation, inhibited apoptosis, and subsequently conferred resistance to chemotherapy. On other hand, silencing CUL4A expression in NSCLC cells reduced proliferation, promoted apoptosis and resulted in tumor growth inhibition in cancer xenograft model. Mechanistically, we revealed CUL4A regulated EGFR transcriptional expression and activation, and subsequently activated AKT. Targeted inhibition of EGFR activity blocked these CUL4A induced oncogenic activities. Our results highlight the significance of CUL4A in NSCLC and suggest that CUL4A could be a promising therapy target and a potential biomarker for prognosis and EGFR target therapy in NSCLC patients.
    Molecular Cancer 11/2014; 13(1):252. DOI:10.1186/1476-4598-13-252 · 5.40 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 23, 2014