Dysfunction of hypothalamic-hypophysial axis after traumatic brain injury in adults.
ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of serious morbidity and mortality. The incidence is 100-500/100,000 inhabitants/year. Chronic pituitary dysfunction is increasingly recognized after TBI. To define the incidence of endocrine dysfunction and risk factors, the authors describe a prospectively assessed group of patients in whom they documented hormonal functions, early diagnosis, and treatment of neuroendocrine dysfunction after TBI.
Patients aged 18-65 years were prospectively observed from the time of injury to 1 year postinjury; the Glasgow Coma Scale score ranged from 3 to 14. Patients underwent evaluation of hormonal function at the time of injury and at 3, 6, and 12 months postinjury. Magnetic resonance imaging was also conducted at 1 year postinjury.
During the study period, 89 patients were observed. The mean age of the patients was 36 years, there were 23 women, and the median Glasgow Coma Scale score was 7. Nineteen patients (21%) had primary hormonal dysfunction. Major deficits included growth hormone dysfunction, hypogonadism, and diabetes insipidus. Patients in whom the deficiency was major had a worse Glasgow Outcome Scale score, and MR imaging demonstrated empty sella syndrome more often than in patients without a deficit.
To the authors' knowledge, this is the third largest study of its kind worldwide. The incidence of chronic hypopituitarism after TBI was higher than the authors expected. After TBI, patients are usually observed on the neurological and rehabilitative wards, and endocrine dysfunction can be overlooked. This dysfunction can be life threatening and other clinical symptoms can worsen the neurological deficit, extend the duration of physiotherapy, and lead to mental illness. The authors recommend routine pituitary hormone testing after moderate or severe TBI within 6 months and 1 year of injury.
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ABSTRACT: This paper presents the most common disorders of pituitary function: acromegaly, hypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus and syndrome similar to diabetes insipidus, in terms of their importance in preoperative preparation of patients. Pituitary function manages almost the entire endocrine system using the negative feedback mechanism that is impaired by these diseases. The cause of acromegaly is a pituitary adenoma, which produces growth hormone in adults. Primary therapy of acromegaly is surgical, with or without associated radiotherapy. If a patient with acromegaly as comorbidity prepares for non-elective neurosurgical operation, then it requires consultation with brain surgeons for possible delays of that operation and primary surgical treatment of pituitary gland. If operative treatment of pituitary gland is carried out, the preoperative preparation (for other surgical interventions) should consider the need for perioperative glucocorticoid supplementation. Panhypopituitarism consequences are different in children and adults and the first step in diagnosis is to assess the function of target organs. Change of electrolytes and water occurs in the case of pituitary lesions in the form of central or nephrogenic diabetes insipidus as a syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Preoperative preparation of patients with pituitary dysfunction should be multidisciplinary, whether it is a neurosurgical or some other surgical intervention. The aim is to evaluate the result of insufficient production of pituitary hormones (hypopituitarism), excessive production of adenohypophysis hormones (acromegaly, Cushing's disease and hyperprolactinemia) and the influence of pituitary tumours in surrounding structures (compression syndrome) and to determine the level of perioperative risk. Pharmacological suppressive therapy of the hyperfunctional pituitary disorders can have significant interactions with drugs used in the perioperative period.Acta chirurgica iugoslavica 01/2011; 58(2):91-6.