Volumetric assessment of secondary alveolar bone grafting using cone beam computed tomography.
ABSTRACT To assess the radiographic outcome of secondary alveolar bone grafting in individuals with nonsyndromic unilateral or bilateral cleft lip and palate using cone beam computed tomography.
This prospective study was conducted at the University of California at San Francisco Center for Craniofacial Anomalies on 21 consecutive nonsyndromic complete cleft lip and palate individuals between 8 and 12 years of age who required alveolar bone grafting. Seventeen unilateral and four bilateral cleft lip and palate individuals had preoperative and postoperative cone beam computed tomography scans that were analyzed using Amira 3.1.1 software.
The average volume of the preoperative alveolar cleft defect in unilateral cleft lip and palate was 0.61 cm(3), and the combined average volume of the right and left alveolar cleft defects in bilateral cleft lip and palate was 0.82 cm(3). The average percentage bone fill in both unilateral cleft lip and palate and bilateral cleft lip and palate was 84%. The outcome of alveolar bone grafting was assessed in relation to (1) type of cleft, (2) size of preoperative cleft defect, (3) presence or absence of lateral incisor, (4) root development stage of the maxillary canine on the cleft side, (5) timing, and (6) surgeon. None of these parameters significantly influenced the radiographic outcome of alveolar bone grafting.
Secondary alveolar bone grafting of the cleft defect in our center was successful, based on radiographic outcome using cone beam computed tomography scans. Volume rendering using cone beam computed tomography and Amira software is a reproducible and practical method to assess the preoperative alveolar cleft volume and the adequacy of bone fill postoperatively.
- SourceAvailable from: Piotr Fudalej[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Current guidelines for evaluating cleft palate treatments are mostly based on two-dimensional (2D) evaluation, but three-dimensional (3D) imaging methods to assess treatment outcome are steadily rising. To identify 3D imaging methods for quantitative assessment of soft tissue and skeletal morphology in patients with cleft lip and palate. Literature was searched using PubMed (1948-2012), EMBASE (1980-2012), Scopus (2004-2012), Web of Science (1945-2012), and the Cochrane Library. The last search was performed September 30, 2012. Reference lists were hand searched for potentially eligible studies. There was no language restriction. We included publications using 3D imaging techniques to assess facial soft tissue or skeletal morphology in patients older than 5 years with a cleft lip with/or without cleft palate. We reviewed studies involving the facial region when at least 10 subjects in the sample size had at least one cleft type. Only primary publications were included. Independent extraction of data and quality assessments were performed by two observers. Five hundred full text publications were retrieved, 144 met the inclusion criteria, with 63 high quality studies. There were differences in study designs, topics studied, patient characteristics, and success measurements; therefore, only a systematic review could be conducted. Main 3D-techniques that are used in cleft lip and palate patients are CT, CBCT, MRI, stereophotogrammetry, and laser surface scanning. These techniques are mainly used for soft tissue analysis, evaluation of bone grafting, and changes in the craniofacial skeleton. Digital dental casts are used to evaluate treatment and changes over time. Available evidence implies that 3D imaging methods can be used for documentation of CLP patients. No data are available yet showing that 3D methods are more informative than conventional 2D methods. Further research is warranted to elucidate it. International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, PROSPERO CRD42012002041.PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e93442. · 3.53 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study presents a comprehensive radiographic evaluation of bone regeneration within a pedicled muscle flap for the reconstruction of critical size mandibular defect. The surgical defect (20 mm×15 mm) was created in the mandible of ten experimental rabbits. The masseter muscle was adapted to fill the surgical defect, a combination of calcium sulphate/hydroxyapatite cement (CERAMENT™ |SPINE SUPPORT), BMP-7 and rabbit mesenchymal stromal cells (rMSCs) was injected inside the muscle tissue. Radiographic assessment was carried out on the day of surgery and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively. At 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) scanning and micro-computed tomography (µ-CT) were carried out. Clinically, a clear layer of bone tissue was identified closely adherent to the border of the surgical defect. Sporadic radio-opaque areas within the surgical defect were detected radiographically. In comparison with the opposite non operated control side, the estimated quantitative scoring of the radio-opacity was 46.6% ±15, the mean volume of the radio-opaque areas was 63.4% ±20. Areas of a bone density higher than that of the mandibular bone (+35% ±25%) were detected at the borders of the surgical defect. The micro-CT analysis revealed thinner trabeculae of the regenerated bone with a more condensed trabecular pattern than the surrounding native bone. These findings suggest a rapid deposition rate of the mineralised tissue and an active remodelling process of the newly regenerated bone within the muscle flap. The novel surgical model of this study has potential clinical application; the assessment of bone regeneration using the presented radiolographic protocol is descriptive and comprehensive. The findings of this research confirm the remarkable potential of local muscle flaps as local bioreactors to induce bone formation for reconstruction of maxillofacial bony defects.PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e107403. · 3.53 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cranial bone grafting for an alveolar cleft obtains membranous bone from a low-morbidity donor site. Although iliac crest bone is the favored donor site, there are no objective analyses of three-dimensional radiologic outcomes with cranial bone grafting and no studies evaluating complications and long-term outcomes in a large series of patients undergoing cranial bone grafting. A retrospective chart review was conducted on patients who underwent alveolar bone grafting from the cranium over a 25-year period performed by a single surgeon. Data collected included patient characteristics, complications, and clinical outcomes. Radiologic analysis of graft outcomes was determined using Amira volume-rendering software on the most recent 10 consecutive patients. The authors' study cohort included 308 patients, with an average age of 11.5 years. Complications involved harvesting the graft in 3.5 percent, the donor site in 1 percent, and the recipient site in 17.2 percent. Regrafting was required in 7.1 percent, with a clinical success rate of 92.9 percent. The average alveolar defect was 1.19 ml preoperatively and 0.19 ml postoperatively, with 85 percent fill of the cleft defect by radiologic analysis. Cranial bone grafting for the alveolar cleft is a low-morbidity operation and has success similar to that of iliac crest bone grafting. It should be considered more often as a viable option for the alveolar cleft patient. Therapeutic, IV.Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 05/2014; 133(5):662e-8e. · 3.33 Impact Factor