Uracil and thymine reactivity in the gas phase: the S(N)2 reaction and implications for electron delocalization in leaving groups.

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901, USA.
Journal of the American Chemical Society (Impact Factor: 10.68). 11/2009; 131(51):18376-85. DOI: 10.1021/ja906814d
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The gas-phase substitution reactions of methyl chloride and 1,3-dimethyluracil (at the N1-CH(3)) are examined computationally and experimentally. It is found that, although hydrochloric acid and 3-methyluracil are similar in acidity, the leaving group abilities of chloride and N1-deprotonated 3-methyluracil are not: chloride is a slightly better leaving group. The reason for this difference is most likely related to the electron delocalization in the N1-deprotonated 3-methyluracil anion, which we explore further herein. The leaving group ability of the N1-deprotonated 3-methyluracil anion relative to the N1-deprotonated 3-methylthymine anion is also examined in the context of an enzymatic reaction that cleaves uracil but not thymine from DNA.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study focused on the development of the accurate and precise quantitative method for the determination of pesticides bromacil (1), terbacil (2), lenacil (3), butafenacil (4) and flupropacil (5) in fruit based soft drinks. Three different types of drinks are bought from market; huddled orange fruit drink (100%) (I), red-oranges (II) and multivitamin drink containing strawberry, orange, banana and maracuja (III). Samples were analyzed "with" and "without" pulp utilizing LC-ESI (or APCI) MS/MS, HPLC-ESI-(or APCI)-MS/MS and UV-MALDI-Orbitrap-MS methods. The effect of high complexity of the food matrix on the analysis was discussed. Study focuses on the advantages of the UV-MALDI-Orbitrap-MS method compared to the traditionally involved GC alone or hybrid methods such as GC-MS and LC-MS/MS for quantification of pesticides in water and soft drinks. The developed method included the techniques performed for validation, calibration and standardization. The target pesticides are widely used for the treatment of citrus fruits and pineapples, but for soft drink products, there are still no clear regulations on pesticide residues limits. The matrix effects in the analysis of fruit drinks required implementation of the exact standard reference material corresponds to the variety of food matrices. This paper contributed to the broad analytical implementation of the UV-MALDI-Orbitrap-MS method in the quality control and assessment programs for monitoring of pesticide contamination in fruit based sodas.
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 09/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 5-methylcytosine (mC) is an epigenetic mark that impacts transcription, development, and genome stability, and aberrant DNA methylation contributes to aging and cancer. Active DNA demethylation involves stepwise oxidation of mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5-formylcytosine (fC), and potentially 5-carboxylcytosine (caC), excision of fC or caC by thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG), and restoration of cytosine via follow-on base excision repair. Here, we investigate the mechanism for TDG excision of fC and caC. We find that 5-carboxyl-2'-deoxycytidine ionizes with pKa values of 4.28 (N3) and 2.45 (carboxyl), confirming that caC exists as a monoanion at physiological pH. Calculations do not support the proposal that G·fC and G·caC base pairs adopt a wobble structure that is recognized by TDG. Previous studies show that N-glycosidic bond hydrolysis follows a stepwise (SN1) mechanism, and that TDG activity increases with pyrimidine N1 acidity, i.e., leaving-group quality of the target base. Calculations here show that fC and the neutral tautomers of caC are acidic relative to other TDG substrates, but the caC monoanion exhibits poor acidity and likely resists TDG excision. While fC activity is independent of pH, caC excision is acid catalyzed, and the pH profile indicates that caC ionizes in the enzyme-substrate complex with an apparent pKa of 5.8, likely at N3. Mutational analysis reveals that Asn191 is essential for excision of caC but dispensable for fC activity, indicating that N191 may stabilize N3-protonated forms of caC to facilitate acid catalysis, and suggesting that N191A-TDG could potentially be useful for studying DNA demethylation in cells.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 09/2013; · 10.68 Impact Factor


Available from