[Is hypertrophic pachymeningitis a dural lesion of IgG4-related systemic disease?].
ABSTRACT Both multifocal fibrosclerosis and hypertrophic pachymeningitis are rare disorders of unknown etiology, characterised by chronic inflammation leading to dense fibrosis. There have been several reports of multifocal fibrosclerosis with hypertrophic pachymeningitis. Autoimmune pancreatitis is frequently associated with various extrapancreatic lesions, their pathological similarities such as dense inflammatory fibrosis with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration strongly suggests a close relationship between autoimmune pancreatitis and multifocal fibrosclerosis. Recently, autoimmune pancreatitis including these systemic fibrosing disorders may be classified as IgG4-related systemic disease. However, the relationship between HP and IgG4-related systemic disease is still uncertain. We performed immunohistochemical examinations in autopsy specimens from a patients with HP. Histological findings can be summarized as follows: sever interstitial fibrosis and diffuse inflammatory cells infiltration, presenting nonspecific inflammatory changes. Immunohistochemically, diffuse infiltrates in the dura consisted predominantly of UCHL-1 positive T or L-26 positive B lymphocytes. Many IgG4 positive plasma cells were also infiltrated. To our knowledge, this may be the first report which showed IgG4 positive plasma cells infiltration in the dura in a patient with HP. It is postulated that HP may be a dural lesion of IgG4-related systemic disease.
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ABSTRACT: Hypertrophic pachymeningitis (HP) is a rare disorder of diverse etiology. It presents with headaches, cranial neuropathies and ataxia occurring alone or in combination. Dural biopsy is essential to exclude secondary causes of pachymeningitis. There is paucity of data on biopsied cases of HP. We report three biopsy-proven cases of idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis. All our patients had headaches and multiple cranial neuropathies; ataxia was seen in one patient. One patient had recurrent anterior and posterior cranial neuropathies, while one each had recurrent anterior and posterior cranial neuropathies. Two patients had profound irreversible mono-ocular visual loss. All of them showed prominent pachymeningeal thickening on imaging. Infarcts were seen in one patient, which have rarely been documented. All patients showed biopsy evidence of meningeal thickening and nonspecific chronic inflammation of the dura. The disease may have a remitting and relapsing course, and usually responds to steroids. Clinical improvement was excellent in two patients and modest in one on steroid therapy. All our patients required azathioprine during the course of therapy. Early institution and long-term maintenance of steroid therapy prevents neurologic sequelae. Occurrence of abdominal inflammatory pseudotumor in a patient of HP possibly as part of multifocal fibrosclerosis has not been described earlier.Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology 07/2011; 14(3):189-93. · 0.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hypertrophic pachymeningitis (HP) is an inflammatory condition in which the dura mater of the cranium or spine becomes thickened, leading to symptoms that result from mass effect, nerve compression, or vascular compromise. The differential diagnosis of HP includes immune-mediated conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and vasculitis, malignancies, and infections. Many times, no diagnosis is reached; in such cases, the disease has been described as idiopathic HP. IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently described inflammatory condition known to cause tumefactive lesions at myriad anatomical locations. Both IgG4-RD and idiopathic HP share similar demographics, histopathology, and natural history. We hypothesized that IgG4-RD is a common cause of idiopathic HP.To investigate this hypothesis, we identified all pathology specimens diagnosed as noninfectious HP during 25 years at our institution. Fourteen cases had stained slides and blocks to permit review of the original hematoxylin and eosin stained slides as well as immunostaining of cell blocks. Recently published consensus guidelines describing characteristic histopathology and the necessary quantity of IgG4+ plasma cell infiltrate were used to diagnose IgG4-RD.Four cases (66.6%) that had been regarded previously as representing idiopathic HP were diagnosed as IgG4-RD; of all the reviewed cases, IgG4-RD represented 29% of cases. Of the remaining cases, 3 cases were associated with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), 2 with lymphoma, and 1 each with rheumatoid arthritis, giant cell arteritis, and sarcoidosis. Two of the cases could not be diagnosed more precisely and were classified as undifferentiated HP. Clinical history, serologic tests, cerebrospinal fluid studies, and radiology alone could not identify the cause of HP. Rather, biopsy with histopathology and immunostaining was necessary to reach an accurate diagnosis. Significant IgG4+ plasma cell infiltrates were observed in rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and lymphoma, underscoring the importance of histopathology in making the diagnosis of IgG4-RD.This case series demonstrates that IgG4-RD may be the most common etiology of noninfectious HP and highlights the necessity of biopsy for accurate diagnosis.Medicine 06/2013; · 4.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hypertrophic pachymeningitis is an uncommon disorder that causes a localized or diffuse thickening of the dura mater. Recently, the possibility that IgG4-related sclerosing disease may underlie some cases of intracranial hypertrophic pachymeningitis has been suggested. We herein report the tenth case of IgG4-related intracranial hypertrophic pachymeningitis and review the previous literature. A 45-year-old male presented with left-sided focal seizures with generalization. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a diffuse thickening and enhancement of the right convexity dura matter and falx with focal nodularity. The surgically resected specimens exhibited the proliferation of fibroblast-like spindle cells and an infiltration of mononuclear cells, including predominantly plasma cells. The ratio of IgG4-positive plasma cells to the overall IgG-positive cells was 45% in the area containing the highest infiltration of plasma cells. On the basis of the above findings, IgG4-related sclerosing disease arising from the dura mater was suspected. IgG4-related sclerosing disease should be added to the pachymeningitis spectrum.Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society. 05/2014; 55(5):300-2.