Initialization-free dual-layer phase-change optical disk
ABSTRACT For the rewritable dual-layer phase-change optical disk, before information is recorded on this disk, the initialization process that changes two phase-change recording layers from the as-deposited amorphous state to the crystalline state must be completed. However, the initialization process of a dual-layer disk, specially the second medium, is very difficult and the time required for the initialization process using a laser beam is significantly longer than for other manufacturing processes. In order to skip this bottleneck and shorten the production time in the product line, the initialization-free function of a dual-layer phase-change optical disk is attractive for the research and production of rewritable dual-layer phase-change optical disks. Our previous work (X.S. Miao et al, ODS'00, TuB3, 2000, and ISOM'01, Fr-K-05, 2001) demonstrated the initialization-free function for single-layer phase-change optical disks with GeSb2Te4 and Ge2Sb2+xTe5 phase-change recording media. In this study, the design, simulation, fabrication and characterization of the initialization-free dual-layer phase-change optical disk were carried out.
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ABSTRACT: The association between diet and colorectal cancer has been studied in depth for many decades, with equivocal results. It has been hypothesized that cancers arising in the distal and proximal colon have different pathologies, and therefore different risk factors. As such, it is possible that diet-related factors might influence colorectal neoplasia differently depending on the subsite. Recent evidence indicates that women may be more likely to develop proximal cancers than men. Additionally, the link between certain dietary factors and colorectal neoplasia in women seems to vary by menopausal status. Given these observations, women may be affected differently than men by diet-related factors. The objective of this article was therefore to review the data for diet and colorectal adenomas and cancer, and then attempt to address the potential differences in the association of diet-related factors and colorectal neoplasia in men and women. For total energy intake, selenium, and fiber, it seems that there may be slightly stronger effects in men as compared with women, whereas calcium and folate seem to affect both sexes similarly. With regard to vitamin D and colorectal cancer, women may exhibit stronger associations than men. Perhaps the most evidence for a sex-specific effect is observed for obesity, where more substantial direct relationships between body size and colorectal neoplasia have been reported for men than for women. However, this observation may be influenced by the differential effects in women by menopausal status. Further research on sex-specific dietary effects is warranted.Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 10/2007; 41(8):731-46. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Preclinical studies have shown that the inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) by alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and resultant decreases in tissue concentrations of polyamines (putrescine and spermidine) prevents neoplastic developments in many tissue types. Clinical studies of oral DFMO at 500 mg/m(2)/day revealed it to be safe and tolerable and resulted in significant inhibition of phorbol ester-induced skin ODC activity. Two hundred and ninety-one participants (mean age, 61 years; 60% male) with a history of prior nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC; mean, 4.5 skin cancers) were randomized to oral DFMO (500 mg/m(2)/day) or placebo for 4 to 5 years. There was a trend toward a history of more prior skin cancers in subjects randomized to placebo, but all other characteristics including sunscreen and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use were evenly distributed. Evaluation of 1,200 person-years of follow-up revealed a new NMSC rate of 0.5 events/person/year. The primary end point, new NMSCs, was not significantly different between subjects taking DFMO and placebo (260 versus 363 cancers, P = 0.069, two-sample t test). Evaluation of basal cell (BCC) and squamous cell cancers separately revealed very little difference in squamous cell cancer between treatment groups but a significant difference in new BCC (DFMO, 163 cancers; placebo, 243 cancers; expressed as event rate of 0.28 BCC/person/year versus 0.40 BCC/person/year, P = 0.03). Compliance with DFMO was >90% and it seemed to be well tolerated with evidence of mild ototoxicity as measured by serial audiometric examination when compared with placebo subjects. The analysis of normal skin biopsies revealed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced ODC activity (month 24, 36, and 48) and putrescine concentration (month 24 and 36 only) in DFMO subjects. Subjects with a history of skin cancer taking daily DFMO had an insignificant reduction (P = 0.069) in new NMSC that was predominantly due to a marked reduction in new BCC. Based on these data, the potential of DFMO, alone or in combination, to prevent skin cancers should be explored further.Cancer Prevention Research 01/2010; 3(1):35-47. · 4.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A Phase I clinical trial has been initiated at the University of Arizona Cancer Center which combines escalating oral doses of the polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), with systemic hyperthermia (approximately 41.5 degrees C) in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. The rationale for the combination of hyperthermia and polyamine biosynthesis inhibitors in the treatment of human cancers includes studies which show that depletion of endogenous polyamines, as a result of treatment with DFMO, sensitizes both rodent and human tumor cells to the cytotoxic effects of hyperthermia. Heat shock induces the first enzyme in polyamine catabolism, spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (N1-SAT). The consequently acetylated forms of spermidine and spermine are then constitutively oxidized by the enzyme polyamine oxidase (PAO). Both CHO and human A549 lung cancer cells exhibit heat-inducible polyamine acetylation, display potent heat sensitization after polyamine depletion, and ultimately reveal prolonged expression of thermotolerance. Conversely, HeLa cells do not demonstrate heat-inducible polyamine catabolism, are not sensitized to heat with DFMO, and display more rapid kinetics of thermotolerance decay. These laboratory studies suggest that enhancement of the cytotoxic action of hyperthermia by DFMO occurs as a consequence of the inhibition of polyamine catabolism, a heat-inducible process that affords some form of protection to cells undergoing heat stress. Human melanoma cultures demonstrate heat-inducible polyamine catabolism and are sensitized to hyperthermic cytotoxicity by DFMO. To date, 24 systemic hyperthermia treatments have been delivered to nine patients with metastatic melanoma in conjunction with oral DFMO under this Phase I clinical trial.International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 08/1990; 19(1):89-96. · 4.52 Impact Factor