Article

La incidencia de los incendios forestales en España

Source: OAI

ABSTRACT Este trabajo forma parte del número monográfico de la revista "Serie Geográfica" dedicado a Incendios forestales (No. 7, 1997-1998). [EN] Forest fíre incidence is a severe environmental problem in Spain. This paper analyses the problem through the study of the available fíre statistics. Most relevant factors affecting fíre incidence in Spain are also reviewed. The main factors of fíre occurrence are analysed as well as the situation of Spain in the European context. Special emphasis is provided on large fíres (above 500 hectares), which are the most destructive from both an environmental and economical point of view. [ES] La incidencia de incendios forestales en nuestro país constituye un problema ambiental de primera magnitud. En el presente articulo se realiza un análisis del fenómeno a través del estudio de las estadísticas más recientes. Se evalúan igualmente los principales factores de incidencia y la situación de España en el contexto europeo. Se hace especial hincapié en los grandes incendios, que son los más catastróficos, tanto desde el punto de vista ambiental como económico. Peer reviewed

Full-text

Available from: Inmaculada Aguado, Feb 04, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
128 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fire is a dominant ecological factor in Mediterranean ecosystems, and changes in the fire regime can have important consequences for the stability of our landscapes. In this framework I asked firstly, what is the trend in fire number and area burned in the eastern Iberian Peninsula, and then, to what extent is the inter-annual variability of fires determined by climatic factors. To answer these questions I analysed the meteorological data (temperature and precipitation) from 350 stations covering the eastern Iberian Peninsula (1950–2000), and the fire records for the same area (historical data, 1874–1968, and data from recent decades, 1968–2000). The results suggested a slight tendency towards decreasing summer rainfall and a clear pattern of increasing annual and summer temperatures (on average, annual temperatures increased 0.35 C per decade from 1950 to 2000). The analysis of fire records suggested a clear increase in the annual number of fires and area burned during the last century; however, in the last three decades the number of fires also increased but the area burned did not show a clear trend. For this period the inter-annual variability in area burned was significantly related to the summer rainfall, that is, in wet summers the area burned was lower that in dry summers. Furthermore, summer rainfall was significantly cross-correlated with summer area burned for a time-lag of 2 years, suggesting that high rainfall may increase fuel loads that burn 2 years later.
    Climatic Change 03/2004; 63(3):337-350. DOI:10.1023/B:CLIM.0000018508.94901.9c · 4.62 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper aims at obtaining mapping burned area (BDAQ) in the Peninsular Spain for the period 1991-2005 by visual analysis of Landsat and SPOT mosaics (1991-1995, 1995-1999, 1999-2000 and 2000-2005). The effectiveness of this product was tested with data from the National Database of Forest Fires (BDIF) of the Directorate General of Biodiversity, which are offered at 10x10 km grid. For the purpose of the validation only fires over 100 ha were used. The burned area database generated mapped 4286 fires with a total burned area of 1.020.207 ha. The spatial distribution of the area burned by regions showed that Valencia has the highest percentage of area burned (23%), followed by Andalucía and Castilla-León where the area burned was 14%. Galicia had an area burned close to 9%. The more frequent land cover where fire occurrence had taken place were the shrublands and woodland composed by conifers (76.3% of the total area burned) followed by grasslands and deciduous forest (13%). Coverage of forest fires perimeters obtained gave a moderate high correlation respect to data from the BDIF above 73%, with the best coverage for the period 1999-2000, with an overall accuracy of 72% with errors of commission 20.2% and 28% of omission. Coverage for the period 1995-1999 had the lowest overall accuracy close to 25%, with errors of commission and omission of 18.4% and 68.6% respectively. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo fundamental la obtención de la cartografía de área quemada (BDAQ) de la España peninsular para el período 1991-2005 mediante análisis visual de mosaicos de imágenes de satélite Landsat y SPOT (1991-1995, 1995-1999, 1999-2000 y 2000-2005). La eficacia de este producto se contrastó con los datos de la Base de Datos de Incendios Forestales (BDIF) de la Dirección General para la Biodiversidad, que se registran en cuadrículas de 10x10 km. Para la validación sólo se utilizaron los incendios mayores de 100 ha. Durante el período de estudio se cartografiaron 4286 incendios, con una superficie total quemada de 1.020.207 ha. En la distribución espacial del área quemada por comunidades autónomas, Valencia presenta el mayor porcentaje de área quemada (23%), seguida de Andalucía y Castilla-León, donde la superficie quemada supone un 14%, y Galicia, con una superficie quemada cercana al 9%. La ocupación del suelo más frecuente en la ocurrencia de incendios forestales fueron los matorrales y las coníferas (76,3% del total de la superficie quemada), seguidos de los pastizales y las frondosas (13%). La superficie de los incendios cartografiados ofreció una correlación con respecto a los datos de la BDIF cercana al 73% de acierto, obteniéndose los mejores resultados en el período 1999-2000, con errores de comisión del 20,2% y de omisión del 28%. La cobertura correspondiente al periodo 1995-1999 presentaba la correlación más baja, alrededor del 25%, con errores de comisión y omisión de 18,4% y 68,6%, respectivamente.