Article

Trastornos neuropsicológicos y del neurodesarrollo en el prematuro.

Anales de psicología, ISSN 0212-9728, Vol. 20, Nº. 2, 2004 (Ejemplar dedicado a: Líneas de investigación actuales en neuropsicología), pags. 317-326
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT El niño prematuro presenta unas manifestaciones morfológicas y funcionales características de su propia inmadurez, que le predisponen a presentar una serie de complicaciones precoces o tardías, siendo la más frecuente la enfermedad de la membrana hialina que produce asfixia perinatal. Ésta puede generar hemorragias intraventriculares y periventriculares. Hay muy pocos estudios sobre la evolución posterior de estos sujetos. En cuanto al neurodesarrollo, los prematuros sin complicaciones presentan en la etapa neonatal una reducción de la sustancia gris cortical, un aumento de los ventrículos laterales y una afectación de la sustancia blanca que se hace más evidente en edades más avanzadas. A los 3-8 años principalmente se observa déficit en el coeficiente de inteligencia, y a los 14-15 se suma la lectura y el cálculo. Por otro lado el prematuro con complicaciones presenta dilatación ventricular, leucomalacia periventricular y atrofia de algunas estructuras subcorticales. En la infancia y a los 13 años se observan dificultades en el rendimiento cognitivo general y en algunas habilidades específicas como la memoria. Ante la escasez de datos, proponemos un estudio neuropsicológico y de neuroimagen exhaustivo y a largo plazo, que muestre las consecuencias de la prematuridad asociada o no a complicaciones.

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