Conference Paper

High impedance arcing fault detector for three-wire power distribution networks

Telecomunicacion Basque Country University
DOI: 10.1109/MELCON.2000.879677 Conference: Electrotechnical Conference, 2000. MELECON 2000. 10th Mediterranean, Volume: 3
Source: IEEE Xplore

ABSTRACT A new approach to a high impedance fault (HIF) detector is presented, suitable for the European scene where the power distribution systems are usually three-phase and three-wire configured. This paper aims to be a contribution to the proposals that, in the last twenty years, have been trying to solve the HIF problem with no definitive solution known yet. The purpose of the study presented is to design an electric arc detector and characterise the danger of the fault looking at fault context conditions. The detector system input signals are the three individual phase currents which comply with 3I0=I1+I2+I3≠0 at the three-wire configuration. First, a continuous HIF context conditions study is proposed: overcurrent or reclosing in every phase, noticeable load variation monitoring and 3I0 monitoring. Secondly, a short, medium and long-term statistical analysis is performed both with odd harmonics (third, fifth, seventh and ninth) and even harmonics (second and fourth) of the I0 current. Thirdly, the estimated arc probability is calculated and combined with context conditions in order to determine a diagnosis. The proposed detector has been tested on 100 unfaulted condition event records (some have leakage current) and 32 staged fault records on different surfaces. The test results presented in the paper are satisfactory both in the sense of dependability and sensitivity.

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    ABSTRACT: A new high impedance fault (HIF) detection method using time-frequency analysis for feature extraction is proposed. A pattern classifier is trained whose feature set consists of current waveform energy and normalized joint time-frequency moments. The proposed method shows high efficacy in all the detection criteria defined in this paper. The method is verified using the real-world data, acquired from HIF tests on three different materials (concrete, grass, and tree branch) and under two different conditions (wet, and dry). Several non-fault events, which often confuse HIF detection systems, were simulated, such as capacitor switching, transformer inrush current, non-linear loads, and power electronics sources. A new set of criteria for fault detection is proposed. Using these criteria the proposed method is evaluated and its performance is compared with the existing methods. These criteria are accuracy, dependability, security, safety, sensibility, cost, objectivity, completeness, and speed. The proposed method is compared with the existing methods, and it is shown to be more reliable, and efficient than its existing counterparts. The effect of choice of pattern classifier on method efficacy is also investigated.
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A new high impedance fault (HIF) detection method using time-frequency analysis for feature extraction is proposed. A pattern classifier is trained whose feature set consists of current waveform energy and normalized joint time-frequency moments. The proposed method shows high efficacy in all the detection criteria defined in this paper. The method is verified using the real-world data, acquired from HIF tests on three different materials (concrete, grass, and tree branch) and under two different conditions (wet, and dry). Several non-fault events, which often confuse HIF detection systems, were simulated, such as capacitor switching, transformer inrush current, non-linear loads, and power electronics sources. A new set of criteria for fault detection is proposed. Using these criteria the proposed method is evaluated and its performance is compared with the existing methods. These criteria are accuracy, dependability, security, safety, sensibility, cost, objectivity, completeness, and speed. The proposed method is compared with the existing methods, and it is shown to be more reliable, and efficient than its existing counterparts. The effect of choice of pattern classifier on method efficacy is also investigated. For full access to the article, contact the authors: ghaderi@email.sc.edu
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    ABSTRACT: High-impedance faults (HIFs) on distribution system still present the most persistent and challenging problem to protection engineers due to the fact that HIFs do not produce enough fault current, thus not detectable by conventional over-current protection devices. Previous research shows that it is possible to distinguish HIFs from other similar waveforms such as nonlinear load currents by analyzing the harmonic contents. A method for HIF detection based on the harmonic analysis of current waveforms is presented here. A harmonic detection program is implemented in MATLAB using both Interpolation Windowed Fast Fourier Transform and All-phase Fast Fourier Transform algorithms. Various simulation results and real-world data analysis show that this harmonic detection program can accurately, reliably and quickly determine the harmonic contents (including frequency, amplitude and phase angle of each harmonic) in an arbitrary signal without knowing its mathematical expression. Simulation results also show that this harmonic detection program could be used for feature extraction and pattern recognition for HIF detection in the future.
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