Deletion of nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 leads to rapid onset and progression of nutritional steatohepatitis in mice.
ABSTRACT Oxidative stress is a critical mediator in liver injury of steatohepatitis. The transcription factor Nrf2 serves as a cellular stress sensor and is a key regulator for induction of hepatic detoxification and antioxidative stress systems. The involvement of Nrf2 in defense against the development of steatohepatitis remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the protective roles of Nrf2 in nutritional steatohepatitis using wild-type (WT) and Nrf2 gene-null (Nrf2-null) mice. WT and Nrf2-null mice were fed a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 3 and 6 wk, and the liver tissues were analyzed for pathology and for expression levels of detoxifying enzymes and antioxidative stress genes via the Nrf2 transcriptional pathway. In WT mice fed an MCD diet, Nrf2 was potently activated in the livers, and steatohepatitis did not develop over the observation periods. However, in Nrf2-null mice fed an MCD diet, the pathological state of the steatohepatitis was aggravated in terms of fatty changes, inflammation, fibrosis, and iron accumulation. In the livers of the Nrf2-null mice, oxidative stress was significantly increased compared with that of WT mice based on the increased levels of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and malondialdehyde. This change was associated with the decreased levels of glutathione, detoxifying enzymes, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activity. Correlating well with the liver pathology, the mRNA levels of factors involved in fatty acid metabolism, inflammatory cytokines, and fibrogenesis-related genes were significantly increased in the livers of the Nrf2-null mice. These findings demonstrate that Nrf2 deletion in mice leads to rapid onset and progression of nutritional steatohepatitis induced by an MCD diet. Activation of Nrf2 could be a promising target toward developing new options for prevention and treatment of steatohepatitis.
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ABSTRACT: Drug-metabolizing enzymes play a vital role in the elimination of the majority of therapeutic drugs. The major organ involved in drug metabolism is the liver. Chronic liver diseases have been identified as a potential source of significant interindividual variation in metabolism. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the United States, affecting between 60 and 90 million Americans, yet the vast majority of NAFLD patients are undiagnosed. NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of pathologies, ranging from steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Numerous animal studies have investigated the effects of NAFLD on hepatic gene expression, observing significant alterations in mRNA, protein, and activity levels. Information on the effects of NAFLD in human patients is limited, though several significant investigations have recently been published. Significant alterations in the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes may affect the clearance of therapeutic drugs, with the potential to result in adverse drug reactions. With the enormous prevalence of NAFLD, it is conceivable that every drug currently on the market is being given to patients with NAFLD. The current review is intended to present the results from both animal models and human patients, summarizing the observed alterations in the expression and activity of the phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes.Drug Metabolism Reviews 05/2011; 43(3):317-34. · 5.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mice lacking transcription factor NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) develop more severe non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), with cirrhosis, than wild-type (Nrf2(+/+)) mice when fed a high-fat (HF) diet for 24 weeks. Although NASH is usually associated with insulin resistance, HF-fed Nrf2(-/-) mice exhibited better insulin sensitivity than HF-fed Nrf2(+/+) mice. In livers of HF-fed mice, loss of Nrf2 resulted in greater induction of lipogenic genes, lower expression of β-oxidation genes, greater reduction in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) levels, and diminished acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation than in the wild-type, which is consistent with greater fatty acid (FA) synthesis in Nrf2(-/-) livers. Moreover, primary Nrf2(-/-) hepatocytes displayed lower glucose and FA oxidation than Nrf2(+/+) hepatocytes, with FA oxidation partially rescued by treatment with AMPK activators. The unfolded protein response (UPR) was perturbed in control RC-fed Nrf2(-/-) livers, and this was associated with constitutive activation of NF-κB and JNK, along with up-regulation of inflammatory genes. The HF-diet elicited an antioxidant response in Nrf2(+/+) livers, and as this was compromised in Nrf2(-/-) livers they suffered oxidative stress. Therefore Nrf2 protects against NASH by suppressing lipogenesis, supporting mitochondrial function, increasing the threshold for the UPR and inflammation, and enabling adaptation to HF diet-induced oxidative stress.Molecular and cellular biology. 06/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Keap1-Nrf2 system plays a central role in the stress response. While Keap1 ubiquitinates Nrf2 for degradation under unstressed conditions, this Keap1 activity is abrogated in response to oxidative or electrophilic stresses, leading to Nrf2 stabilization and coordinated activation of cytoprotective genes. We recently found that nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 is significantly increased by simultaneous deletion of Pten and Keap1, resulting in the stronger activation of Nrf2 target genes. To clarify impact of the crosstalk between Keap1-Nrf2 and Pten-PI3K-Akt pathways on the liver pathophysiology, in this study we have conducted closer analysis of liver-specific Pten::Keap1 double mutant mice (Pten::Keap1-Alb mice). The Pten::Keap1-Alb mice were lethal by 1 month after birth and displayed severe hepatomegaly with abnormal expansion of ductal structures comprising cholangiocytes in a Nrf2-dependent manner. Long-term observation of Pten::Keap1-Alb::Nrf2(+/-) mice revealed that the Nrf2-heterozygous mice survived beyond 1 month but developed polycystic liver fibrosis by 6 months. Gsk3 directing the Keap1-independent degradation of Nrf2 was heavily phosphorylated and consequently inactivated by the double deletion of Pten and Keap1 genes. Thus, liver-specific disruption of Keap1 and Pten augments Nrf2 activity through inactivation of Keap1-dependent and -independent degradation of Nrf2 and establishes the Nrf2-dependent molecular network promoting the hepatomegaly and cholangiocyte expansion.Molecular and cellular biology 12/2013; · 6.06 Impact Factor