Cardiac sound murmurs classification with autoregressive spectral analysis and multi-support vector machine technique.
ABSTRACT In this paper, a novel cardiac sound spectral analysis method using the normalized autoregressive power spectral density (NAR-PSD) curve with the support vector machine (SVM) technique is proposed for classifying the cardiac sound murmurs. The 489 cardiac sound signals with 196 normal and 293 abnormal sound cases acquired from six healthy volunteers and 34 patients were tested. Normal sound signals were recorded by our self-produced wireless electric stethoscope system where the subjects are selected who have no the history of other heart complications. Abnormal sound signals were grouped into six heart valvular disorders such as the atrial fibrillation, aortic insufficiency, aortic stenosis, mitral regurgitation, mitral stenosis and split sounds. These abnormal subjects were also not included other coexistent heart valvular disorder. Considering the morphological characteristics of the power spectral density of the heart sounds in frequency domain, we propose two important diagnostic features Fmax and Fwidth, which describe the maximum peak of NAR-PSD curve and the frequency width between the crossed points of NAR-PSD curve on a selected threshold value (THV), respectively. Furthermore, a two-dimensional representation on (Fmax, Fwidth) is introduced. The proposed cardiac sound spectral envelope curve method is validated by some case studies. Then, the SVM technique is employed as a classification tool to identify the cardiac sounds by the extracted diagnostic features. To detect abnormality of heart sound and to discriminate the heart murmurs, the multi-SVM classifiers composed of six SVM modules are considered and designed. A data set was used to validate the classification performances of each multi-SVM module. As a result, the accuracies of six SVM modules used for detection of abnormality and classification of six heart disorders showed 71-98.9% for THVs=10-90% and 81.2-99.6% for THVs=10-50% with respect to each of SVM modules. With the proposed cardiac sound spectral analysis method, the high classification performances were achieved by 99.9% specificity and 99.5% sensitivity in classifying normal and abnormal sounds (heart disorders). Consequently, the proposed method showed relatively very high classification efficiency if the SVM module is designed with considering THV values. And the proposed cardiac sound murmurs classification method with autoregressive spectral analysis and multi-SVM classifiers is validated for the classification of heart valvular disorders.