Antithrombin Therapy for Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Which Agent to Use? Does It Matter?

New York Methodist Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Brooklyn, New York.
JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions (Impact Factor: 7.35). 11/2009; 2(11):1092-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcin.2009.09.001
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Available from: Sorin J Brener, Oct 05, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to examine a unique and low dose of intravenous enoxaparin in elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) that would be applicable to an unselected population regardless of age, weight, renal function, or use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. There is limited experience of anticoagulation using intravenous (IV) low-molecular-weight heparin in PCI, which has been obtained with high doses causing elevated anticoagulation levels and delayed sheath withdrawal. A total of 242 consecutive patients undergoing elective PCI were treated with a single IV bolus of enoxaparin (0.5 mg/kg), and 26% of patients (n = 64) also received eptifibatide. Sheaths were removed immediately after the procedure in patients treated with enoxaparin only, and 4 h after the procedure in those also treated with eptifibatide. A peak anti-Xa >0.5 IU/ml was obtained in 97.5% of the population, and 94.6% of patients had their peak anti-Xa level in the predefined target range of 0.5 to 1.5 IU/ml. Advanced age, renal failure, being overweight, and eptifibatide use did not alter the anticoagulation profile. At one-month follow-up, six patients (2.5%) had died, had a myocardial infarction, or undergone an urgent revascularization; all the patients had an anti-Xa level >0.5 IU/ml during PCI. Patients without an ischemic event and without a creatine kinase rise, but with a detectable troponin release in the next 24 h of PCI (>2 microg/ml, n = 21), had similar anti-Xa levels as those without troponin elevation. There were one major and three minor bleeding events that were not associated with anti-Xa overshoot. Low-dose (0.5 mg/kg) IV enoxaparin allows a prespecified target level of anticoagulation (anti-Xa >0.5 IU/ml) in the vast majority of patients undergoing PCI, appears to be safe and effective, allows immediate sheath removal when used alone, and does not require dose adjustment when used with eptifibatide.
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