Dimorphic expression of tryptophan hydroxylase in the brain of XX and XY Nile tilapia during early development.
ABSTRACT Serotonin (5-HT) is well known for modulating the release of GnRH and gonadotropin in teleosts. Reports on increased female:male ratio after the blockade of 5-HT biosynthesis proposed a role for 5-HT in brain sex differentiation. Two types of tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph), rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of 5-HT were cloned from vertebrates. In the present study, we cloned Tph from brain and evaluated its importance during early development of XX and XY Nile tilapia. Tph cloned from tilapia brain is 1888 bp in length and it encodes predicted protein of 462 amino acid residues. Tph activity of tilapia was confirmed by demonstrating the conversion of L-tryptophan to 5-hydroxy tryptophan by the recombinant protein after transient transfection of this cDNA clone in COS-7 cells. Northern blot identified single transcript around 2kb in male brain. Tissue distribution of Tph revealed high abundance in brain, kidney, liver and testis. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed exclusive expression of Tph in the male brain from 5 to 20 days post hatch (dph) while in the female brain, it was from 25 dph. These results were authenticated by localization of Tph transcripts in olfactory bulb-telencephalon region of 11 dph male brain using in situ hybridization. Tph immunoreactivity (-ir) was also evident in the nucleus preopticus-periventricularis area of male brain as early as 12 dph. However, Tph-ir was observed in several regions of both male and female brain without any distinction from 30 dph. Dimorphic expression pattern of Tph during early brain development around the critical period (7-21 dph) of gonadal sex determination and differentiation may implicate a role for Tph in brain sex differentiation of tilapia.
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ABSTRACT: In non-mammalian vertebrates, serotonin (5-HT)-producing neurons exist in the paraventricular organ (PVO), a diencephalic structure containing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-contacting neurons exhibiting 5-HT or dopamine (DA) immunoreactivity. Because the brain of the adult teleost is known for its neurogenic activity supported, for a large part, by radial glial progenitors, this study addresses the origin of newborn 5-HT neurons in the hypothalamus of adult zebrafish. In this species, the PVO exhibits numerous radial glial cells (RGCs) whose somata are located at a certain distance from the ventricle. To study relationships between RGCs and 5-HT CSF-contacting neurons, we performed 5-HT immunohistochemistry in transgenic tg(cyp19a1b-GFP) zebrafish in which RGCs are labelled with GFP under the control of the cyp19a1b promoter. We show that the somata of the 5-HT neurons are located closer to the ventricle than those of RGCs. RGCs extend towards the ventricle cytoplasmic processes that form a continuous barrier along the ventricular surface. In turn, 5-HT neurons contact the CSF via processes that cross this barrier through small pores. Further experiments using proliferating cell nuclear antigen or 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine indicate that RGCs proliferate and give birth to 5-HT neurons migrating centripetally instead of centrifugally as in other brain regions. Furthermore, treatment of adult zebrafish with tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor causes a significant decrease in the number of proliferating cells in the PVO, but not in the mediobasal hypothalamus. These data point to the PVO as an intriguing region in which 5-HT appears to promote genesis of 5-HT neurons that accumulate along the brain ventricles and contact the CSF.European Journal of Neuroscience 08/2013; · 3.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) is the rate-limiting enzyme for catecholamine (CA) biosynthesis and is considered to be a marker for CA-ergic neurons, which regulate the levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in brain and gonadotropins in the pituitary. In the present study, we cloned full-length cDNA of Th from the catfish brain and evaluated its expression pattern in the male and female brain during early development and after sex-steroid analogues treatment using quantitative real-time PCR. We measured the CA levels to compare our results on Th. Cloned Th from catfish brain is 1.591 kb, which encodes a putative protein of 458 amino acid residues and showed high homology with other teleosts. The tissue distribution of Th revealed ubiquitous expression in all the tissues analyzed with maximum expression in male and female brain. Copy number analysis showed two-fold more transcript abundance in the female brain when compared with the male brain. A differential expression pattern of Th was observed in which the mRNA levels were significantly higher in females compared with males, during early brain development. CAs, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, dopamine and norepinephrine levels measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection in the developing male and female brain confirmed the prominence of the CA-ergic system in the female brain. Sex-steroid analogue treatment using methyltestosterone and ethinylestradiol confirmed our findings of the differential expression of Th related to CA levels.General and Comparative Endocrinology 12/2013; · 2.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Juvenile Catfish(es), Clarias batrachus of 50 days post hatch (dph) were exposed to endosulfan (2.5 parts per billion [ppb]) and flutamide (33 ppb), alone and in combination for 50 days to access their impact on ovarian development. The doses used in this study were nominal considering pervious reports. Sampling was done at 100 dph to perform histology and measurement of various transcripts, estradiol-17β and aromatase activity. In general, treatments enhanced expression of ovary-specific transcription factors, steroidogenic enzymes steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and aromatases while transcripts of tryptophan hydroxylase2 (tph2) and catfish gonadotropin-releasing hormone declined in the brain of all treated groups with maximum reduction in the endosulfan group. Significant reduction of tph2 immunoreactivity in the forebrain/telencephalon-preoptic area endorsed our results. Increased number of pre-vitellogenic and less immature oocytes in the treated groups indicated hastened ovarian growth. Elevated ovarian aromatase activity and plasma estradiol-17β levels were noticed in the treated groups with maximum being in the endosulfan group. These data together demonstrate that the exposure of endosulfan causes synchronous precocious ovarian development better than flutamide, alone or in combination. Our results suggest that both endosulfan and flutamide alter ovarian growth by triggering precocious development in catfish.Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Toxicology & Pharmacology 04/2012; 155(3):491-7. · 2.83 Impact Factor