Gait speed at usual pace as a predictor of adverse outcomes in community-dwelling older people an International Academy on Nutrition and Aging (IANA) Task Force.
ABSTRACT The use of a simple, safe, and easy to perform assessment tool, like gait speed, to evaluate vulnerability to adverse outcomes in community-dwelling older people is appealing, but its predictive capacity is still questioned. The present manuscript summarises the conclusions of an expert panel in the domain of physical performance measures and frailty in older people, who reviewed and discussed the existing literature in a 2-day meeting held in Toulouse, France on March 12-13, 2009. The aim of the IANA Task Force was to state if, in the light of actual scientific evidence, gait speed assessed at usual pace had the capacity to identify community-dwelling older people at risk of adverse outcomes, and if gait speed could be used as a single-item tool instead of more comprehensive but more time-consuming assessment instruments.
A systematic review of literature was performed prior to the meeting (Medline search and additional pearling of reference lists and key-articles supplied by Task Force members). Manuscripts were retained for the present revision only when a high level of evidence was present following 4 pre-selected criteria: a) gait speed, at usual pace, had to be specifically assessed as a single-item tool, b) gait speed should be measured over a short distance, c) at baseline, participants had to be autonomous, community-dwelling older people, and d) the evaluation of onset of adverse outcomes (i.e. disability, cognitive impairment, institutionalisation, falls, and/or mortality) had to be assessed longitudinally over time. Based on the prior criteria, a final selection of 27 articles was used for the present manuscript.
Gait speed at usual pace was found to be a consistent risk factor for disability, cognitive impairment, institutionalisation, falls, and/or mortality. In predicting these adverse outcomes over time, gait speed was at least as sensible as composite tools.
Although more specific surveys needs to be performed, there is sufficient evidence to state that gait speed identifies autonomous community-dwelling older people at risk of adverse outcomes and can be used as a single-item assessment tool. The assessment at usual pace over 4 meters was the most often used method in literature and might represent a quick, safe, inexpensive and highly reliable instrument to be implemented.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Antoni Salvà, May 29, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Background Sarcopenia is an important public health problem that affects mainly elders, and has negative consequences, such as disability and even death. Due to the lack of studies evaluating sarcopenia in elderly persons hospitalized in Brazil, the aim of the present study was to describe the frequency of sarcopenia and associated factors among elders in a hospital in the city of Salvador - Brazil. Methods This cross-sectional study included 110 hospitalized elderly patients in a multi-specialty hospital in Salvador-BA, Brazil. Inclusion criteria: were elders aged ≥60 years between the first and fifth day of hospitalization; who were able to walk without external assistance; with medical permission to walk, and who did not take vasoactive and inotropic drugs. The diagnosis of sarcopenia was determined by combining the reduction in skeletal muscle mass with muscle weakness (women, <20 kg; men, <30 kg) and/or poor physical performance (gait speed ≤0.8 m/s). To obtain reduced skeletal muscle mass, the skeletal muscle mass index ≤6.37 kg/m2 for women and ≤8.90 kg/m2 for men was used. Cognitive function, Charlson index, admission profile (clinical and surgical), smoking, falls suffered in the last year and physical inactivity prior to admission were also evaluated. The frequency of sarcopenia was described in percentages with their respective confidence intervals and logistic regression was performed for multivariate analysis of factors associated with sarcopenia. Results Among the 110 patients included, the frequency of sarcopenia was 21.8%, with 10.0% being of the severe type. There was a predominance of clinical profile (59.1%), such as heart disease (20.0%), pneumonia (13.6%) and skin infections (9.1%), with a Charlson index of 5.4 ± 1.8. The factors associated with sarcopenia were age (OR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.23), clinical profile on admission (OR = 5.15; 95% CI = 1.16–22.9) and smoking (OR = 7.8; 95% CI = 1.53–39.9). Conclusions The frequency of sarcopenia in elderly hospitalized patients was high (1 in 5 elderly) and anthropometric equation can be a viable and inexpensive alternative to screening and programming intervention in this population.BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 05/2015; 16(108):1. DOI:10.1186/s12891-015-0570-x · 1.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The role of cognition is becoming increasingly central to our understanding of the complexity of walking gait. In particular, higher-level executive functions are suggested to play a key role in gait and fall-risk, but the specific underlying neurocognitive processes remain unclear. Here, we report two experiments which investigated the cognitive and neural processes underlying older adult gait and falls. Experiment 1 employed a dual-task (DT) paradigm in young and older adults, to assess the relative effects of higher-level executive function tasks (n-Back, Serial Subtraction and visuo-spatial Clock task) in comparison to non-executive distracter tasks (motor response task and alphabet recitation) on gait. All DTs elicited changes in gait for both young and older adults, relative to baseline walking. Significantly greater DT costs were observed for the executive tasks in the older adult group. Experiment 2 compared normal walking gait, seated cognitive performances and concurrent event-related brain potentials (ERPs) in healthy young and older adults, to older adult fallers. No significant differences in cognitive performances were found between fallers and non-fallers. However, an initial late-positivity, considered a potential early P3a, was evident on the Stroop task for older non-fallers, which was notably absent in older fallers. We argue that executive control functions play a prominent role in walking and gait, but the use of neurocognitive processes as a predictor of fall-risk needs further investigation. Citation: Walshe EA, Patterson MR, Commins S and Roche RAP (2015) Dual-task and electrophysiological markers of executive cognitive processing in older adult gait and fall-risk. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 9:200.Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 05/2015; 9(200). DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2015.00200 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Functional decline is a primary risk factor for institutionalization and mortality among older adults. Although community-based fall risk reduction programs have been widely disseminated, little is known about their impact on gait speed, a key indicator of functional performance. Changes in functional performance between baseline and post-intervention were examined by means of timed up and go (TUG), a standardized functional assessment test administered to participants enrolled in A Matter of Balance/Volunteer Lay Leader (AMOB/VLL) model, an evidence-based fall risk reduction program. This study included 71 participants enrolled in an AMOB/VLL program in the Brazos Valley and South Plain regions of Texas. Paired t-tests were employed to assess program effects on gait speed at baseline and post-intervention for all participants and by subgroups of age, sex, living status, delivery sites, and self-rated health. The Bonferroni correction was applied to adjust inflated Type I error rate associated with performing multiple t-tests, for which p-values <0.0042 (i.e., 0.5/12 comparisons) were deemed statistically significant. Overall, gait speed of enrolled participants improved from baseline to post-intervention (t = 3.22, p = 0.002). Significant changes in TUG scores were observed among participants who lived with others (t = 4.45, p < 0.001), rated their health as excellent, very good, or good (t = 3.05, p = 0.003), and attended program workshops at senior centers (t = 3.52, p = 0.003). Findings suggest community-based fall risk reduction programs can improve gait speed for older adults. More translational research is needed to understand factors related to the effectiveness of fall risk reduction programs in various populations and settings.Frontiers in Public Health 04/2015; 3. DOI:10.3389/fpubh.2015.00026