Mammalian copper-transporting P-type ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B: emerging roles.

Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, Victoria 3125, Australia.
The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology (Impact Factor: 4.89). 11/2009; 42(2):206-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocel.2009.11.007
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Copper (Cu) has a role in a diverse and increasing number of pathways, physiological and disease processes. These roles are testament to the fundamental importance of Cu in biology and the need to understand the mechanisms that regulate Cu homeostasis. The mammalian Cu-transporting P-type ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B are two key proteins that regulate the Cu status of the body. They transport Cu across cellular membranes for biosynthetic and protective functions, enabling Cu to fulfill its role as a catalytic and structural cofactor for many essential enzymes, and to prevent a toxic build-up of Cu inside cells. A variety of regulatory mechanisms operate at transcriptional and post-translational levels to ensure adequate Cu supplies for both physiological and pathophysiological processes. This review summarizes the recent literature that is revealing the emerging roles of the Cu-ATPases in health and disease.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The essential trace metals iron, zinc, and copper play important roles both in retinal physiology and disease. They are involved in various retinal functions such as phototransduction, the visual cycle, and the process of neurotransmission, being tightly bound to proteins and other molecules to regulate their structure and/or function or as unbound free metal ions. Elevated levels of "free" or loosely bound metal ions can exert toxic effects, and in order to maintain homeostatic levels to protect retinal cells from their toxicity, appropriate mechanisms exist such as metal transporters, chaperones, and the presence of certain storage molecules that tightly bind metals to form nontoxic products. The pathways to maintain homeostatic levels of metals are closely interlinked, with various metabolic pathways directly and/or indirectly affecting their concentrations, compartmentalization, and oxidation/reduction states. Retinal deficiency or excess of these metals can result from systemic depletion and/or overload or from mutations in genes involved in maintaining retinal metal homeostasis, and this is associated with retinal dysfunction and pathology. Iron accumulation in the retina, a characteristic of aging, may be involved in the pathogenesis of retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Zinc deficiency is associated with poor dark adaptation. Zinc levels in the human retina and RPE decrease with age in AMD. Copper deficiency is associated with optic neuropathy, but retinal function is maintained. The changes in iron and zinc homeostasis in AMD have led to the speculation that iron chelation and/or zinc supplements may help in its treatment.
    Survey of Ophthalmology 11/2013; 58(6):585-609. · 2.86 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Homeostasis of the trace element copper is essential to all eukaryotic life. Copper serves as a cofactor in metalloenzymes and catalyzes electron transfer reactions as well as the generation of potentially toxic reactive oxygen species. Here, we describe the functional characterization of an evolutionarily highly conserved, predicted copper-transporting P-type ATPase (CuTP) in the murine malaria model parasite Plasmodium berghei. Live imaging of a parasite line expressing a fluorescently tagged CuTP demonstrated that CuTP is predominantly located in vesicular bodies of the parasite. A P. berghei loss-of-function mutant line was readily obtained and showed no apparent defect in in vivo blood stage growth. Parasite transmission through the mosquito vector was severely affected, but not entirely abolished. We show that male and female gametocytes are abundant in cutp(-) parasites, but activation of male microgametes and exflagellation were strongly impaired. This specific defect could be mimicked by addition of the copper chelator neocuproine to wild-type gametocytes. A cross-fertilization assay demonstrated that female fertility was also severely abrogated. In conclusion, we provide experimental genetic and pharmacological evidence that a healthy copper homeostasis is critical to malaria parasite fertility of both genders of gametocyte and, hence, to transmission to the mosquito vector.
    Molecular Microbiology 11/2013; · 5.03 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Placentae and mammary epithelial cells are unusual in robustly expressing two copper "pumps", ATP7A and B, raising the question of their individual roles in these tissues in pregnancy and lactation. Confocal microscopic evidence locates ATP7A to the fetal side of syncytiotrophoblasts, suggesting a role in pumping Cu towards the fetus; and to the basolateral (blood) side of lactating mammary epithelial cells, suggesting a role in recycling Cu to the blood. We tested these concepts in wild-type C57BL6 mice and their transgenic counterparts that expressed hATP7A at levels 10-20× those of endogenous mAtp7a. In lactation, overexpression of ATP7A reduced the Cu concentrations of the mammary gland and milk ~50%. Rates of transfer of tracer (64)Cu to the suckling pups were similarly reduced over 30-48 h, as was the total Cu in 10-day -old pups. During the early and middle periods of gestation, the transgenic litters had higher Cu concentrations than the wild-type, placental Cu showing the reverse trend; but this difference was lost by the first postnatal day. The transgenic mice expressed ATP7A in some hepatocytes, so we investigated the possibility that metalation of ceruloplasmin (Cp) might be enhanced. Rates of (64)Cu incorporation into Cp, oxidase activity, and ratios of holo to apoceruloplasmin were unchanged. We conclude that in the lactating mammary gland, the role of ATP7A is to return Cu to the blood, while in the placenta it mediates Cu delivery to the fetus and is the rate-limiting step for fetal Cu nutrition during most of gestation in mice.
    Physiological reports. 01/2014; 2(1):e00195.


Available from