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Mammalian copper-transporting P-type ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B: emerging roles.

Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood, Victoria 3125, Australia.
The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology (Impact Factor: 4.89). 11/2009; 42(2):206-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocel.2009.11.007
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Copper (Cu) has a role in a diverse and increasing number of pathways, physiological and disease processes. These roles are testament to the fundamental importance of Cu in biology and the need to understand the mechanisms that regulate Cu homeostasis. The mammalian Cu-transporting P-type ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B are two key proteins that regulate the Cu status of the body. They transport Cu across cellular membranes for biosynthetic and protective functions, enabling Cu to fulfill its role as a catalytic and structural cofactor for many essential enzymes, and to prevent a toxic build-up of Cu inside cells. A variety of regulatory mechanisms operate at transcriptional and post-translational levels to ensure adequate Cu supplies for both physiological and pathophysiological processes. This review summarizes the recent literature that is revealing the emerging roles of the Cu-ATPases in health and disease.

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