Lipoproteins, sex hormones and inflammatory markers in association with prostate cancer

Clinical Biochemistry Department, INFIBIOC, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
The Aging Male (Impact Factor: 2). 11/2009; 13(2):87-92. DOI: 10.3109/13685530903410617
Source: PubMed


To evaluate lipoprotein profile and sex hormones in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and their possible associations with some inflammatory markers linked to PCa.
A total of 150 men (50-65 years), matched by age and body mass index (BMI), included in this study and divided into three groups according to total prostate specific antigen (PSA), digital rectal examination and prostate biopsy: 50 PCa, 50 BPH and 50 controls. Total cholesterol (Chol), HDL-chol, LDL-chol, triglycerides (TG), total testosterone (T), free T (FT), bioavailable T (BioT), estradiol and SHBG were measured. The free androgen index (FAI) and TG/HDL-chol were calculated. In 25 PCa and 25 controls, C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponectin and insulin were determined.
Patients with PCa showed higher TG/HDL-chol and diminished HDL-chol than Controls and BPH. PSA correlated inversely with HDL-chol and directly with TG/HDL-chol. FAI, FT, BioT and estradiol levels were higher, and SHBG and adiponectin were lower in PCa than in Controls. No differences were found in androgens between BPH and PCa.
Our most novel findings are that the patients with PCa presented lower total Chol and HDL-chol and higher TG/HDL-chol than BPH and Controls. Patients with PCa showed higher androgens and lower adiponectin than Controls.

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    • "Grosman et al. found a positive correlation between the free androgen index (FAI), fT and bT and PCa in a cohort of 150 men scheduled for prostate biopsy [18] "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract: Background: Circulating testosterone remains the main source of androgens, however only 1%-2% circulates as free testosterone (fT), hormone active form. To compare the performance of serum fT and total testosterone (tT) as predictors of prostate cancer (PCa) detection and aggressiveness. Methods: Serum fT (RIA, pg/mL) and tT (LC/MS, ng/dL) were prospectively determined in 3364 consecutive men with PCa suspicion scheduled to TRUS guided biopsy. Tumor aggressiveness was assessed by Gleason grade (8 to 10) and D´Amico risk (cT3a+ or PSA>20 ng/mL or Gleason 8 to 10). Recodification of fT and tT in four groups according to percentile (ptile) distribution were done. tT/1 (min to 10 ptile): 62-291 ng/dl, tT/2(ptile 10.1 to 50): 291,1 to 451 ng/dl, tT/3 (ptile 50.1 to 90): 451,1 to 676 ng/dl, and tT/4 (ptile 90.1 to max): 676.1 to 1440 ng/dl. fT/1: 0,1 to 0,85, fT/2: 0,86 to 5.20, fT/3: 5,21 to 9.65, and fT/4: 9.66 to 18 pg/ml. Results: PCa detection rates were for tT/1: 43.8%, tT/2: 40.6%, tT/3: 35.6%, and tT/4: 31.7%, p=0.0001. For fT/1: 48.0%, fT/2: 41.0%, fT/3: 34.8%, and fT/4: 28.6%, p=0.0001. Logistic regression analysis shown fT and tT as independent predictors of PCa detection, respectively OR= 0.857 (95%CI: 0.769-0.956), p= 0.006, and OR= 0.792 (95%CI: 0.709-0.883), p=0.0001. Conclusions: Serum fT and tT were independent predictors of PCa detection. fT has better performance than tT to predict the PCa risk, but none of them were related to tumor aggressiveness. Impact: Free testosterone could compose a nomogram to improve PCa detection.
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    • "Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and CRP were reported to be elevated in prostate cancer patients and IL-6 may potentially be involved in the development or progression of prostate cancer [49]. Adiponectin levels were reported lower in PC than in controls [50]. In a prospective study, CRP appeared unrelated to prostate cancer risk [51]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignancies in men. Charles Huggins and Clarence V. Hodges reported the androgen dependence of prostate cancer in 1941. That led to the utilization of androgen deprivation therapy as an important therapeutic modality to treat prostate cancer. Androgen deprivation therapy has additional systemic effects that include sexual dysfunction, psychological changes and more important are the metabolic changes. Metabolic changes in particular include insulin resistance, increase fat mass and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and induce type 2 diabetes. In this review we will focus on the cardiovascular risk associated with androgen deprivation therapy that includes the mechanisms involved.
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