Structural analysis of a cytosolic glutamine synthetase from Camellia sinensis (CsGS) has been conducted employing computational techniques. This was conducted to compare its structural aspects with other known structures of GS. The disordered residues and their distribution in CsGS are in close comparison to earlier reported GS. The 3-D structure of CsGS also showed high degree of similarity with the only known crystal structure of GS from Zea mays. The K ( m ) values observed with recombinant CsGS for all the three substrates are higher compared to rice, Arabidopsis, maize and human. This suggests lower affinity of CsGS for substrates. Further, kinetic mechanism of CsGS catalysis was investigated using initial velocity analysis and product inhibition studies. Initial velocity data eliminate the possibility of ping-pong mechanism and favor the random mechanism of catalysis. Through product inhibition studies, ADP was found to be a competitive inhibitor with respect to ATP and noncompetitive inhibitor versus both glutamate and ammonium. While, glutamine and inorganic phosphate were found to be non-competitive inhibitors of ATP, glutamate and ammonia. Taken together, these observations are consistent with a random catalysis mechanism for the CsGS where the binding order of certain substrates is kinetically preferred by the enzyme.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regulation of the cytosolic isozyme of glutamine synthetase (GS(1); EC 220.127.116.11) was studied in leaves of Brassica napus L. Expression and immunodetection studies showed that GS(1) was the only active GS isozyme in senescing leaves. By use of [gamma-(32)P]ATP followed by immunodetection, it was shown that GS(1) is a phospho-protein. GS(1) is regulated post-translationally by reversible phosphorylation catalysed by protein kinases and microcystin-sensitive serine/threonine protein phosphatases. Dephosphorylated GS(1) is much more susceptible to degradation than the phosphorylated form. The phosphorylation status of GS(1) changes during light/dark transitions and depends in vitro on the ATP/AMP ratio. Phosphorylated GS(1) interacts with 14-3-3 proteins as verified by two different methods: a His-tag 14-3-3 protein column affinity method combined with immunodetection, and a far-Western method with overlay of 14-3-3-GFP. The degree of interaction with 14-3-3-proteins could be modified in vitro by decreasing or increasing the phosphorylation status of GS(1). Thus, the results demonstrate that 14-3-3 protein is an activator molecule of cytosolic GS and provide the first evidence of a protein involved in the activation of plant cytosolic GS. The role of post-translational regulation of cytosolic GS and interactions between phosphorylated cytosolic GS and 14-3-3 proteins in senescing leaves is discussed in relation to nitrogen remobilization.
The Plant Journal 11/2000; 24(2):171-81. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-313x.2000.00863.x · 5.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 18.104.22.168) is a key enzyme of nitrogen assimilation, catalyzing the synthesis of glutamine from ammonium and glutamate. In Arabidopsis, cytosolic GS (GS1) was accumulated in roots when plants were excessively supplied with ammonium; however, the GS activity was controlled at a constant level. The discrepancy between the protein content and enzyme activity of GS1 was attributable to the kinetic properties and expression of four distinct isoenzymes encoded by GLN1;1, GLN1;2, GLN1;3 and GLN1;4, genes that function complementary to each other in Arabidopsis roots. GLN1;2 was the only isoenzyme significantly up-regulated by ammonium, which correlated with the rapid increase in total GS1 protein. GLN1;2 was localized in the vasculature and exhibited low affinities to ammonium (Km = 2450 +/- 150 microm) and glutamate (Km = 3.8 +/- 0.2 mm). The expression of the counterpart vascular tissue-localizing low affinity isoenzyme, GLN1;3, was not stimulated by ammonium; however, the enzyme activity of GLN1;3 was significantly inhibited by a high concentration of glutamate. By contrast, the high affinity isoenzyme, GLN1;1 (Km for ammonium < 10 microm; Km for glutamate = 1.1 +/- 0.4 mm) was abundantly accumulated in the surface layers of roots during nitrogen limitation and was down-regulated by ammonium excess. GLN1;4 was another high affinity-type GS1 expressed in nitrogen-starved plants but was 10-fold less abundant than GLN1;1. These results suggested that dynamic regulations of high and low affinity GS1 isoenzymes at the levels of mRNA and enzyme activities are dependent on nitrogen availabilities and may contribute to the homeostatic control of glutamine synthesis in Arabidopsis roots.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromatographic, kinetic, and regulatory properties of glutamine synthetase in rice were investigated. By DEAE-Sephacel column chromatography, two forms (glutamine synthetase 1 and glutamine synthetase 2) were identified in leaves and one form (glutamine synthetase R) was identified in roots. Purification on hydroxyapatite and gel electrophoresis showed that glutamine synthetase R was distinct from the leaf enzymes. The three isoforms were purified to similar specific activities and their properties were studied. Heat lability, pH optimum about 8, K(m) for l-glutamate of 20 millimolar, and inhibition by glucosamine 6-phosphate were the main characteristics of glutamine synthetase 2. Heat stability, pH optimum about 7.5, K(m) for l-glutamate of 2 millimolar, and no effect of glucosamine 6-phosphate differentiated glutamine synthetase 1 from glutamine synthetase 2. Glutamine synthetase R was also a labile protein but its kinetic and regulatory properties were quite similar to those of glutamine synthetase 1. These results clearly demonstrate the existence of three isoforms of glutamine synthetase in rice, two of which are located in the leaves and the third in the roots.
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