1H-MRS at 4 Tesla in minimally treated early schizophrenia

Department of Psychiatry, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001, USA.
Molecular Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 15.15). 11/2009; 15(6):629-36. DOI: 10.1038/mp.2009.121
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We investigated glutamate-related neuronal dysfunction in the anterior cingulate (AC) early in schizophrenia before and after antipsychotic treatment. A total of 14 minimally treated schizophrenia patients and 10 healthy subjects were studied with single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) of the AC, frontal white matter and thalamus at 4 T. Concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln) and Gln/Glu ratios were determined and corrected for the partial tissue volume. Patients were treated with antipsychotic medication following a specific algorithm and (1)H-MRS was repeated after 1, 6 and 12 months. There were group x region interactions for baseline NAA (P=0.074) and Gln/Glu (P=0.028): schizophrenia subjects had lower NAA (P=0.045) and higher Gln/Glu (P=0.006) in the AC before treatment. In addition, AC Gln/Glu was inversely related to AC NAA in the schizophrenia (P=0.0009) but not in the control group (P=0.92). Following antipsychotic treatment, there were no further changes in NAA, Gln/Glu or any of the other metabolites in any of the regions studied. We conclude that early in the illness, schizophrenia patients already show abnormalities in glutamatergic metabolism and reductions in NAA consistent with glutamate-related excitotoxicity.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It is unclear whether N-acetylaspartate (NAA) depletions documented in schizophrenia patients might be due to the disease progression or medications. Here we investigated longitudinal NAA changes in drug-naïve first-episode patients (FEP) who are relatively free from chronicity. Forty-two drug-naïve FEP and 38 controls were enrolled in this study to explore the effect of 8-week risperidone monotherapy on NAA. All spectra were obtained from the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) on a 3.0 T MRI and analyzed with LCModel. At baseline, patients presented no significant differences in NAA (P = 0.084) or NAA/Cr + Pcr (P = 0.500) compared to controls; NAA levels were negatively correlated with PANSS total scores (P = 0.001) and WCST-PE (P = 0.041). After treatment, patients demonstrated significant reductions of NAA (P < 0.001) and NAA/Cr + Pcr (P < 0.001), and significant improvement in PANSS-P (P < 0.001) and PANSS-G (P < 0.001) symptoms. We detected no significant correlations between NAA alterations and PANSS-P (P = 0.679) or PANSS-G (P = 0.668) symptom changes; nor did NAA/Cr + Pcr changes with alterations in PANSS-P (P = 0.677) and PANSS-G (P = 0.616). This is the first evidence that short-term risperidone treatment induces an acute reduction of MPFC NAA during the early phase of schizophrenia, which may be a previously unavailable biomarker to indicate risperidone with a similar pharmacological mechanism, although the functional significance is still unclear.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The glutamate and dopamine hypotheses are leading theories of the pathoaetiology of schizophrenia. Both were initially based on indirect evidence from pharmacological studies supported by post-mortem findings, but have since been substantially advanced by new lines of evidence from in vivo imaging studies. This review provides an update on the latest findings on dopamine and glutamate abnormalities in schizophrenia, focusing on in vivo neuroimaging studies in patients and clinical high-risk groups, and considers their implications for understanding the biology and treatment of schizophrenia. These findings have refined both the dopamine and glutamate hypotheses, enabling greater anatomical and functional specificity, and have been complemented by preclinical evidence showing how the risk factors for schizophrenia impact on the dopamine and glutamate systems. The implications of this new evidence for understanding the development and treatment of schizophrenia are considered, and the gaps in current knowledge highlighted. Finally, the evidence for an integrated model of the interactions between the glutamate and dopamine systems is reviewed, and future directions discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Journal of Psychopharmacology 01/2015; 29(2). DOI:10.1177/0269881114563634 · 2.81 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In vivo measurement of neurotransmitters and modulators is now feasible with advanced proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) techniques. This review provides a basic tutorial of MRS, describes the methods available to measure brain glutamate, glutamine, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutathione, N-acetylaspartylglutamate, glycine, and serine at magnetic field strengths of 3T or higher, and summarizes the neurochemical findings in schizophrenia. Overall, (1)H MRS holds great promise for producing biomarkers that can serve as treatment targets, prediction of disease onset, or illness exacerbation in schizophrenia and other brain diseases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.01.007 · 10.28 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 29, 2014